foxy chick pleasures twat and gets licked and plowed in kamerki
sampling a tough cock. fsiblog
free porn

Using Riddles in Geography and Movie-maker in EFL Secondary Classes to Enhance Lebanese Learners’ Problem Solving and Creative Skills


Using Riddles in Geography and Movie-maker in EFL Secondary Classes to Enhance Lebanese Learners’ Problem Solving and Creative Skills

Abir Abdallah* Rola Al Shami**

Problem solving, as one of the critical thinking skills, and creativity are two twenty first century skills that require higher-order level of thinking and that pose a challenge for teachers to integrate in their teaching practices. The purpose of the current study was to inspect the effectiveness of riddles in fostering problem-solving skills in geography classes. Moreover, it aimed to study the impact of using Windows Microsoft Moviemaker (WMM) on students’ creativity in EFL classes. The research study followed the quasi-experimental and the one-group posttest experimental designs, and it employed the mixed method. The participants in the study were 37 Lebanese students enrolled in the first secondary class, and 24 Lebanese EFL students enrolled in the second secondary class. Data were collected using two Geography achievement tests, a rubric for assessing creativity, and a content analysis checklist. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, paired t-tests and independent t-tests using the SPSS program, and qualitative data were analyzed by a committee of three professional teachers.  The research findings revealed that there was a significant difference in mean scores of the geography achievement tests between the control group and the experimental group. Also, they indicated the development of EFL students’ creative skills when the WMM was used. This verified the research hypotheses that using riddles boosts students’ problem solving skills in geography and that employing the WMM in projects promotes EFL students’ creativity. Based on these findings, the two researchers recommended using riddles in geography classes as a means to develop the learners’ problem solving skills and employing WMM as a tool to devise projects in order to foster EFL learners’ creativity

Keywords: Riddles, Windows Microsoft Moviemaker, Problem Solving Skills, Creative Skills.


The teaching and learning processes in the 21st century have encountered many hindrances, yet they have witnessed substantial innovation. Twenty first century learners need to be equipped with the skills that enable them to adapt to a developing, inter-reliant, and intricate world and to make them qualified in their professions later. Indeed, educators and curricula designers should carry out an entire revision of the present curricula and teaching practices. They should incorporate more higher-order thinking skills and give them much significance to _________________

* P.hd Assistant Professor.

** Associate Professor.

enable a twenty first century learner to meet the demands of workplace. Among these skills are critical thinking and creativity and innovation skills (Boe, 2013). Critical thinking skills comprise the skills needed for solving intricate problems, probing into ambiguous issues, analyzing and evaluating different opinions and various resources, and drawing conclusions backed up by consistent and credible pieces of evidence (Ravitz et al., 2012).  Fahim and Masouleh (2012) describe the critical person as “a critical consumer of information” who is determined to pursue reasons and proof. Carroll (2004) views a critical thinker as a better problem-solver and a better decision-maker (p.2). Along the same line, Dwyer, Hogan & Stewart (2014) refer to critical thinking as a meta-cognitive process by which a problem is solved by analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, and summarizing opinions or solutions. Posing problems in the form of riddles urges students to use their critical thinking skills to be able to solve the problem or the riddle (Saputra et al., 2019). The other important skill that plays an integral role in shaping the way of thinking of twenty first century learners is creativity. Creativity is a higher-order thinking skill that enables students to modify or produce solutions to intricate problems by analyzing, synthesizing, and then presenting the existing input in a novel way (Ravitz et al., 2012). Teachers should devise activities and tasks that activate and promote learners’ creative skills. Indeed, problem-solving exercises stimulate learners’ creativity than close-ended paper and pencil exercises (Bialik et al., 2015). Another way to develop creativity is the integration of the Information Communication Technology (ICT) skills in the learning process. A plethora of research studies verified the efficient role of the use of ICT in boosting learners’ creativity and problem solving skills (Dale, 2008; Kangas, 2010; Elliot, 2009; Loveless, 2002; Tacchi, 2004 cited in García-Sánchez, 2015). Windows Movie Maker (WMM) is a dynamic ICT tool that requires learners to think critically and creatively.

Using Riddles in Problem Solving

          There has been a shift in the teaching/learning processes from the behaviorist approach to the cognitive and constructivist approaches in all subjects including geography. The behaviorist approach depended on de-contextualization of geographical knowledge in addition to rote-learning and mere memorization of a heap of geographical facts and information. This conforms to the banking system of education which views teachers as bank clerks and students as empty accounts. The role of the know-it-all teachers is to make deposits of loads of information into these accounts (Fahim & Masouleh, 2012). With the rapid pace of information booming, the behaviorist and banking system approaches were discredited (Vankan, 2003).  As an alternative, cognitive and constructivist approaches formed the bedrock of active and learner-centered practices in teaching and learning geography. This enabled learners to develop their critical and creative thinking to solve intricate problems in different contexts. Instead of pouring much information into the minds of learners, the teacher presents the content in a form of a problem that learners have to detect and solve through looking for information from various sources and analyzing it.

One way to boost learners’ problem-solving skills is using riddles. A riddle is a puzzle stated in a double or veil meaning and presented to the learner to solve it (Brassell & Furtado, 2008). Using riddles promotes active learning and enhances the classroom interaction between teachers and learners (Rini, 2011). Many research studies proved the efficacy of problem-solving approach in geography classes. Yeung (2010) studied the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in a pre-university geography class. The study yielded positive results with respect to students’ problem analysis and systematic understanding; however, findings were not satisfactory enough with regards to students’ organization of thought, argument, and quality of thinking. Pourshafie and Murray-Harvey (2013) highlighted the effectiveness of PBL in prospect teaching practices. Golightly and Raath (2015) carried out an experimental study to investigate the impact of PBL on first-year geography education students. Findings revealed that the use of PBL nurtured students’ deep learning. Another study (Raath & Golightly, 2017) examined the effect of PBL approach on the practical field work as part of the training program of geography teachers. Findings verified the effectiveness of PBL and widened the teachers’ perspectives on complicated environmental issues. Along the same line, Golightly (2018) conducted a longitudinal study to inspect the usefulness of PBL in boosting self-directed learning skills of B.ED. geography students and to explore their perceptions towards self-directedness in learning. Findings indicated that students perform better and adopted positive perceptions when PBL was implemented.


          Creativity, as one of the 21st century skills, doesn’t have a specific, clear-cut definition (Dornyei, 2005). Sternberg and Lubert (1999) believed that creativity is to think or behave in an imaginative way in order to attain a certain goal or produce a work which is novel in the sense that is new and unexpected and which is appropriate in the meaning that is efficient and flexible with respect to task constrains. Another definition stated that a person is creative when the interaction among paradoxical elements as thinking, personal characteristics, motivation, and feelings occurs in a particular environment (Cropley, 2011). Gardner (2007) considered certain cognitive abilities as essential for an individual to prosper in a world full of development and challenges. These abilities comprise five minds that enable learners to think and act properly in such a world. One of these minds is the creative mind which empowers learners to think outside the box. It assists learners to pose unusual questions, generate unpredicted responses, and come up with novel solutions to problems. In this regard, Cropley (2005) pointed out that “The crucial thing about creative problem-solving is that, in contrast to “ordinary” problem-solving, the problem is not specified exactly, the nature of the solution is largely open, the pathway to the solution is not specified, and the criteria for recognizing a solution are open (p.4)”. Teaching and learning processes then should encompass convenient methods, tools, content, and tasks that motivate learners to foster their higher-order thinking skills, one of which is creativity. Indeed, developing creative learners is important at the personal, social, and economic levels (Jackson, Oliver, Shaw, & Wisdom, 2006). At the personal level, creativity leads learners to be self-sufficient, more aware of their identities, and ready to seek professional development. At the social level, it makes learners cognizant of problems and challenges and insightful about promising solutions and probable alternatives. As to its economic significance, creativity brings on qualified learners able to create original products or services.

To assess creativity, Greenstein (2012) referred to measurable indicators formed from some basic features of creativity. The first indicator is curiosity which involves probing, asking questions, or seeking deeper meaning. The second indicator is fluency which is the production of a number of ideas. The third one is originality which means ideas that are novel, fresh, unique, or unusual. The fourth one is elaboration which means ideas that display intensive detail or add to existing detail. The fifth one is imagination which includes dreaming up, inventing new ideas or products, or ingenuity. The last one is flexibility which means ideas that show a variety of possibilities (p.77-79).

Windows Movie Maker (WMM) as a Creative Learning Tool

          Teaching learners that belong to the z generation stipulates considering the integration of ICT tools into the teaching and learning processes an inevitable step. Gupta (2010) highlighted this issue when he stated that “Technology is no longer a tool to create an alternative environment – it is the environment.” Windows Movie Maker (WMM) is an advanced multimedia tool that can be dexterously utilized in learner-centered classes. It is a multipurpose and user-oriented tool. It is instrumental in learning a target language, for it motivates EFL learners to practice the target language by communicating their ideas through writing a title or a subtitle or recording a narration or any other voice thread about the movie topic. Hence, it allows learners to perform in the target language and engages them in authentic contexts (Ting, 2013). Similarly, Kierran and Xierri (2017) considered that video making propels learners to use language in real-life environment and to convey messages smoothly and promptly.

          WMM is also efficacious in developing learners’ creativity. It exposes learners to personalized learning experiences while making their movies. For instance, learners can make individual choices in the course of making their movies such as importing pictures and videos they like from a camera or a PC, edit videos using editing tools to trim, speed up, or slow down the movie, selecting an audio file and adjusting its volume, adding music or narration and/or choosing transitions, effects, and animations. Indeed, highly creative and less creative learners are triggered to think outside the box while making their movies (Petersen et al., 2013).

The Purpose of the Study

          The present study aims at investigating the effect of using riddles on boosting the problem-solving skills of Lebanese first secondary students in geography. It also endeavors to explore the efficacy of moviemaker usage in developing Lebanese second secondary EFL students’ creativity.

The following research questions were formulated to address the research purpose:

  1. What is the effect of using riddles on the problem-solving performance of Lebanese first secondary students in geography?
  2. What is the effect of using Windows Microsoft Moviemaker in EFL projects on developing creativity of Lebanese second secondary students?


Research Design and Participants

The present study uses the quasi-experimental design, specifically the nonequivalent control group design, to examine whether there is a difference in problem-solving performance between the experimental group that uses riddles and the control one that follows regular instruction to learn geography. The independent variables are the riddles and the regular instruction, and the dependent variable is the problem-solving performance. Also, this study uses the one-group posttest experimental design to determine if the use of moviemaker in EFL secondary classes boosts students’ creativity. The independent variable is the moviemaker, and the dependent variable is the students’ creative performance. The mixed method is employed in the current study. Quantitative data were collected from achievement tests and two rubrics, and qualitative data were collected from content analysis of the WMM projects.


The materials used in the geography control class comprise the geography book and the LCD projector; as to the experimental class, the same materials were used in addition to the worksheets that contain the riddles about climate regions. The materials used in the EFL classes included the English textbook, the LCD projector, the microphone, the Windows Microsoft Moviemaker software, and reliable and valid websites recommended by the English teachers. These websites were used by the participants to locate information that pertains to the assigned topics of their movie presentations.

Research Hypotheses

Based on the aforementioned research questions, the following hypotheses were stated:

H1: There is a statistically significant difference at (α ≤ 0.05) in the total mean score of

       problem-solving achievement between the students who learn geography through riddles and those who learn geography through regular instruction in first secondary classes.

H2: Using Windows Microsoft Moviemaker in EFL projects boosts creativity of second secondary students.


Geography Classes

Unit six in the geography book of the first secondary class was selected; the unit is titled “Climate Regions” and it comprises explanation on seven climate regions. The teacher explained the unit to the control group through regular instruction. She clarified the title of each lesson and listed its objectives. Then she enumerated the characteristics of the climate, the flora and the fauna of each region and analyzed them through carrying out a whole class discussion. However, the teacher explained the same unit to the experimental class using riddles. She exposed students to a set of referential and inferential problematic questions on the characteristics of the climate, the flora and the fauna of each region and distributed riddles that pertain to these problems to them. Students worked first in groups and then individually to decode the riddles by referring to the content of each lesson. Accordingly, students were able to conclude the characteristics of each region. Also, they designed a table consisting of several cells that include the name of each region and the characteristics of climate, flora, and fauna of each region with illustrations.

EFL Classes

          The teacher assigned projects to the participants after she covered a unit titled “Current Issues” with them. She asked them to make movies in which they expose the problems of water and electricity in Lebanon and propose practical measures to solve them. Students carried out research on these two problems; first, they located information from reliable and credible resources about how these two problems in other countries were solved; then they selected the solutions that fit the Lebanese context and can be possibly implemented. This demanded analyzing the information and evaluating it to take decisions about what to select from the solutions. After that, the participants either paraphrased or summarized the information. Next, they started making their movies using the Windows Movie Maker that they practiced using it in the computer class. They chose the shot list, music or audio input, effects, animation, etc… they want. At the same time, they addressed the following questions corresponding to six measurable indicators of creativity (Greenstein, 2012):

Curiosity: What ideas do you want to address about the problem of water/electricity in Lebanon?

Fluency: How many solutions to this problem can be adopted from the many solutions that you have found?

Originality: to what extent are the proposed solutions presented in an original and innovative ways in your movie?

Elaboration: How can you modify the proposed solutions to fit the Lebanese context?

Imagination: How would the proposed measures affect the Lebanese situation in the future?

Flexibility: How would you prioritize the proposed solutions if there is difficulty in implementing them all?

Data Collection and Analysis

          Data were collected by means of four instruments. Two achievement tests were devised by two professional geography teachers. The tests included riddles about the geography content. They were used to collect quantitative data about the participants’ achievement before and after the experiment. The researchers analyzed the quantitative data of the geography tests by carrying out a series of independent t-tests and paired t-tests using the SPSS program. As to the data collection of WMM projects, a rubric that included measurable indicators of creativity was used to assess the creative elements in the participants’ movies. Descriptive statistics of data were computed and analyzed by the SPSS. Qualitative data was also collected by means of a checklist used by a committee of three EFL teachers to analyze the extent of participants’ creativity in WMM projects.

Results and Discussion

The Use of Riddles in Geography Classes

Two independent samples t-tests were used to examine if using riddles in the geography class enhanced participants’ problem-solving skills. The first independent samples t-test compared between the mean value of the pretest scores of the participants in the control group and that of participants in the experimental group.

Descriptive statistics showed no substantial difference in the mean values between the control group (M = 118.67, SD = 8.17) and the experimental group (M = 17.66, SD = 6.17) as shown in table 1. The results of the independent-samples t-test of pretest scores with an alpha level of .05, and as revealed in table 2, indicated that there wasn’t a significant difference between the mean value of the experimental group and that of the control group with P (t (35) = 0.67, df = 132) > .05.

Table 1

Descriptive Statistics of Pretest Scores 
  Group N M SD Std. Error Mean
Pretest scores C 18 18.67 8.17 1.92
E 19 17.66 6.17 1.42

Table 2

Independent Samples Test of Pretest Scores

  Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means  
F Sig. T Df Sig. (2-tailed) 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Pretest Scores Equal variances assumed 2.29 .14 .43 35 .67 -3.80 5.82
Equal variances not assumed     .42 31.63 .67 -3.86 5.87

Another independent samples t-test was carried out with an alpha level of .05 to examine if there was a significant difference in students’ performance in geography after using riddles. Descriptive statistics revealed that there was a considerable difference in the mean value between the control group (M= 19.67, SD= 6.58) and the experimental group (M= 25.48, SD= 5.90) as indicated in table 3. The results of the independent-samples t-test of posttest scores showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in solving geography problems after solving riddles with P (t (35) = .00, df = 35) < .05, which suggests a highly significant gain in achievement from an educational point of view (refer to Table 4).

Table 3

Descriptive Statistics of Posttest Scores
  Group N M SD Std. Error Mean
Posttest scores C 18 19.67 6.58 1.55
E 19 25.48 5.90 1.35

Table 4

Independent Samples Test of Posttest Scores   
  Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means  
F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Posttest Scores Equal variances assumed .01 0.89 -2.83 35 .00 -9.98 -1.64
Equal variances not assumed     -2.82 34.09 .00 -9.99 -1.62

The researcher, also, conducted two paired samples t-tests with the level of significance a ≤ .05. The first was to find out if using regular instruction in the geography class developed problem-solving skills of students in the control group, and the second was to test whether using riddles in the geography class boosted problem-solving skills of students in the experimental group. As indicated in table 5 and 6, there wasn’t a significant difference (p > 0.05) between pretest scores of students in the control group before regular instruction (M = 18.66, SD = 8.16) and posttest scores after receiving regular instruction (M=19.67, SD = 6.58).

Table 5

Descriptive Statistics of Pre-Posttest Scores  of the Control Group
  N M SD
Pair Pre_C. 18 18.66 8.16
Post_C. 18 19.67 6.58

Table 6

Paired Samples Test of Pre-Posttest Scores of the Control Group
  Paired Differences t Df Sig. (2-tailed)
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Pair pre_C-post_C. -1.48 3.49 .85 17 .41

In contrast to the above results, descriptive statistics displayed in table 7 show that there was a remarkable difference in mean values (p < 0.05) between pretest scores of students in the experimental group before using riddles (M = 17.66, SD = 6.17) and posttest scores of participants in the experimental group after using riddles (M = 25.48, SD = 5.90). The results of the paired samples t-test conducted to measure difference in the participants’ problem-solving performance after using riddles in geography revealed statistically significant difference           P(t(18)= -00, df = 18) = .00 at a ≤ .05 (refer to table 8). The 95% confidence interval for the difference is between 2.92 and 12.72. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis was accepted, and the researchers deduced that the use of riddles helped students in the experimental group to perform better in solving geography problems than the use of regular instruction. The findings are in line with the aforementioned studies carried out on the use of Problem Based Learning in geography education, and they cross validated their results that using PBL is efficacious with respect to academic achievements, deep learning, self-directedness, perceptions towards self-directedness, and interaction of learners in geography classes.

Table 7

Descriptive Statistics of Pre-Posttest Scores of the Experimental Group
  N M SD
Pair Pre_exp. 19 17.66 6.17
Post_exp. 19 25.48 5.90

Table 8

Paired Samples Test of Pre-Posttest Scores of the Experimental Group
  Paired Differences t Df Sig. (2-tailed)
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Pair pre_exp-post_exp. 2.92 12.72 3.36 18 .00

The Use of Windows Microsoft Moviemaker in an EFL class

          Descriptive statistics of the measurable indicators of creativity were computed and the findings showed that most of the movies were proficiently made according to the six measurable indicators: Curiosity (M=3.42, SD=.58), fluency (M=3.50, SD=.51), originality (M=3.04, SD=.36), elaboration (M=3.38, SD=.49), imagination (M=3.08, SD=.50), and flexibility (M=3.29, SD=.46) as indicated in figure 1. As to the findings of qualitative data, content analysis of WMM projects revealed that almost all of the participants’ movies showed original ways of tackling the problems of water and electricity and modifying solutions to fit the Lebanese context in addition to the creative synchronization of shots, music, narration, effects, frames, and/or animations. Therefore, Using Windows Microsoft Moviemaker in EFL projects was proved to boost creativity of second secondary students. These findings align with previous research regarding the significant role of WMM in developing learners creativity, motivating EFL learners to interact with each other using the target language, and providing authentic learning opportunities.

Figure 1. Indicators of creativity in EFL learners WMM projects


          To sum up, the current study has made some contribution to the research literature regarding the use of riddles as a problem-solving tool to enhance critical thinking in geography classes and the use of WMM as an ICT tool to boost creativity of EFL learners. Teachers and practitioners in the fields of geography and EFL education are invited to use riddles and WMM as tools to develop the 21st century learners’ skills, specifically the Information Communication, Technology skills, the critical thinking skills and creativity. Teaching and learning practices need to be modified to satisfy the needs of 21st century learners as digital beings. Educators have to be fully aware that the integration of technology with pedagogy is no more a far-fetched goal but rather an absolute reality.


Bialik, M., Fadel, C., Trilling, B., Nilsson, P., & Groff, J. (2015). Skills for the 21st Century: What should students Learn. Centre for Curriculum Redesign, Boston, Massachusetts.

Boe, C. S. (2013). Have 21st Century skills made their way to the university classroom? A study to examine the extent to which 21st Century skills are being incorporated into the academic programs at a small, private, church-related university. Retrieved from

Brassell, D., & Furtado, L. (2008). Enhancing English As a Second Language Students’ Vocabulary Knowledge. Reading8(1).

Carroll, R. T. (2004). Critical thinking. Retrieved from

Cropley, A. J. (2005). Creativity and problem-solving: Implications for classroom assessment. Leicester: British Psychological Society.

Cropley, A. (2011). Definition of Creativity. Retrieved from 375038-9-00066-2.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, N.J: L. Erlbaum.

Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2014). An Integrated Critical Thinking Framework for the 21st Century. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 12, 43–52. Retrieved from

Fahim, M., & Masouleh, N. S. (2012). Critical thinking in higher education: A pedagogical look. Theory & Practice in Language Studies2(7).  Retrieved from https://doi:10.4304/tpls.2.7.1370-1375

García-Sánchez, J. L. (2015). Developing creativity and cooperation through information and communications technologies in teaching English as a foreign language.

Gardner, H. (2007). Five Minds for the Future. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School


Greenstein, L. M. (2012). Assessing 21st century skills: A guide to evaluating mastery and authentic learning. Corwin Press.

Golightly, A. (2018). The influence of an integrated PBL format on geography students’

 perceptions of their self-directedness in learning. Journal of Geography in Higher Education42(3), 460-478.

Golightly, A., & Raath, S. (2015). Problem-based learning to foster deep learning in preservice geography teacher education. Journal of Geography114(2), 58-68.

Gupta, R. (2010). Technology in the English Language Classroom. Language in India, No 61-76.

Kieran, D., & Xerri, D. (Ed.). (2017). The image in English language teaching. Malta: ELT Council.

Jackson, N., Oliver, M., Shaw, M., & Wisdom, J. (Eds.). (2006). Developing creativity in higher education: An imaginative curriculum. Routledge.

Petersen, S. A., Procter-Legg, E., & Cacchione, A. (2013). Creativity and mobile language learning using LingoBee: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 5(3), 34–51. Retrievd from

Pourshafie, T., & Murray-Harvey, R. (2013). Facilitating problem-based learning in teacher education: Getting the challenge right. Journal of Education for Teaching39(2), 169-180.

Raath, S., & Golightly, A. (2017). Geography Education Students’ Experiences with a Problem-Based Learning Fieldwork Activity. Journal of Geography116(5), 217-225.

Ravitz, J., Hixson, N., English, M., & Mergendoller, J. (2012). Using project based learning to teach 21st century skills: Findings from a statewide initiative. Paper presented at Annual Meetings of the American Educational Research Association. Vancouver, BC. April 16, 2012. Retrieved from PBL_21CS_WV

Rini, A. R. S. (2011). The Effect of Using Riddles on The Eighth Grade Students’ vocabulary Achievement At Smpn 1 Asembagus Situbondo (Doctoral dissertation, Jember University).

Saputra, M. D., Joyoatmojo, S., Wardani, D. K., & Sangka, K. B. (2019). Developing Critical-Thinking Skills through the Collaboration of Jigsaw Model with Problem-Based Learning Model. International Journal of Instruction12(1), 1077-1094.

Sternberg, R.J. & Lubart, T.L. (1999). “The Concept of Creativity: Prospects and

Paradigms”. In R.J. Starnberg (ed.). Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press, pp. 137-152.

Ting, N. C. (2013). Classroom video project: An investigation on student’s perception. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 441-448.

Vankan, L. (2003). Towards a new way of learning and teaching in geographical education. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education12(1), 59-63.

Yeung, S. (2010). Problem-based learning for promoting student learning in high school geography. Journal of Geography109(5), 190-200. Retrieved from

اترك رد

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني.

free porn website