The Effect of the Physical Training Program on Reducing Test Anxiety among Students of the Faculty of Languages
The Effect of the Physical Training Program on Reducing Test Anxiety among Students of the Faculty of Languages
Sana Issa Srour (PhD)()
Maysam Hammad Abid Al-Dulaimi()
تناقش الورقة تأثير التمرين في علاج اضطرابات القلق وتُقدّم مراجعة منهجيّة لنتائج اضطرابات القلق المحدّدة، بما في ذلك اضطراب القلق العام، وقلق الامتحان، واضطراب الوسواس القهريّ، واضطراب الخوف. تشرح هذه الدراسة أيضًا كيفيّة عمل التمارين المضادة للقلق، وتناقش فوائد التمرين وقيوده كعلاج بديل أو تكميليّ، وتُقدّم إرشادات لممارسة فعّالة لمكافحة القلق. أجريت الدراسة الحاليّة على مجموعة من طلبة كلّيّة اللغات في العراق السنة الرابعة في قسم اللغة الإنكليزيّة في جامعة بغداد. اختير المشاركون بشكل عشوائيّ وقُسّموا إلى مجموعتين: مجموعة تجريبيّة، ومجموعة ضابطة. والغرض من ذلك هو تحديد مدى فاعليّة البرنامج التدريبيّ كجزء من البرنامج السلوكيّ المعرفيّ (CBT) من 12 جلسة. قارنّا نتائج القياس القَبْليّ والبَعديّ للمجموعتين على مقياس سبيلبرجر للتحقّق من فرضيّات الدراسة. أظهرت النتائج أنّ العلاج المعرفيّ السلوكيّ كان فعّالاً في تقليل في درجة قلق الاختبار في المجموعة التجريبيّة.
الكلمات المفتاحيّة: اختبار القلق، مقياس سبيلبرجر، العلاج السلوكيّ المعرفيّ، الحدّ من القلق، العلاج بالبرنامج التدريبيّ.
The paper discusses the effect of exercise in treating anxiety disorders and provides a systematic review of outcomes of specific anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, exam anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and fear disorder. This study also explains how anti-anxiety exercises work, discusses the benefits and limitations of exercise as an alternative or complementary treatment, and presents guidelines for effective anti-anxiety practice. The current study was conducted on a group of students of the Faculty of Languages in Iraq, fourth year at the English Department at Baghdad University. The participants are chosen randomly and are divided by lottery into two groups: an experimental and a control group. The purpose is to determine the effectiveness of the training program as part of the cognitive behavioral program in reducing the degree of test anxiety using Spielberger scale. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) consists of 12 sessions. The pre and post measurement results of the two groups were compared on the Spielberger scale to verify the hypotheses of the study. The results showed that CBT was effective in reducing the degree of test anxiety in the experimental group.
Keywords: Test Anxiety, Spielberger Scale, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Anxiety Reduction, Training Program Therapy
Students! “Take out papers and pencils, sudden exam on literature…”
One of the students starts to sweat, looks kind of pale, and the pulse of five other students rises. These are some test anxiety symptoms
Anxiety disorders of all kinds constitute one of the most common types of problems with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of the population. According to Wells (2013), Psychiatry suggests that 30% of human behavioral studies throughout life, attribute serious consequences to anxiety disorders. These disorders include poor quality of life, decreased level of daily functioning, difficulty in sleeping and even development of health problems, such as high blood pressure and heart problems. Against the background of the negative consequences of feeling anxious, several studies in recent decades have traced factors that may reduce people’s feelings of anxiety such as physical training (Hartley, 2011).
Anxiety disorder is found in comorbidities with other disorders, mainly depression. Studies such as Osman, A. Wong, J. L., Bagge, C. L., Freedenthal, S. Gutierrez, P. M., & Lozano, G. (2012) claim that there is also a factor common to both which is negative effectiveness. Such an effect is perceived as a general dimension of subjective distress which is so high. Negative effectiveness reflects the experience of distress and preoccupation with negative content. Many studies (Henry and Crawford, 2005) have supported the existence of a negative effectiveness factor and found that it is strongly related to the symptoms and diagnosis of anxiety and depression.
Review of Literature
According to Fernández-Castillo (2013), the situations that people face in their daily lives are many and varied. So, they instill in them an anxiety that varies in intensity, where this strongly depends on the nature of the situation in which people are in. This type of anxiety is called Situation Anxiety. There are many situations that cause an individual to feel anxious, such as failure, aggressive and of course, testing (Fernández-Castillo, 2013).
Furthermore, Amalu and Bekomson (2020) believe that the learner is one of the basic component of the educational process, and academic achievement is a natural product of the circumstances and the variables surrounding it. These circumstances and variables are very numerous, and exam anxiety is one of them. Exam anxiety in the academic field is related to a situation with respect to the students’ test in a subject matter. The student who obtains a high score in an exam has a low or even a zero-level anxiety. However, a student with a failing grade will develop a negative feeling towards any test, and as such, the anxiety level will be high. This is because in general, a test produces intense emotional and physiological responses which are accompanied with feelings of distress and negative thoughts. Accordingly, such an anxiety “hurts the way the learners perform or remember what they have studied, and it is regarded as negative anxiety” (Amalu and Bekomson, 2020, p. 311).
Numerous studies (Anyamene, A., Nwokolo, C. and Azaji, I. (2016); Bekomson and Mgban (2019); Erozkan, A., Adiguzel, A. and Dogan U. (2017)) have revealed that exam anxiety includes two main components. The first is the cognitive aspect or the so-called discomfort, which constitutes the individual’s preoccupation with his cognitive performance. Such a discomfort includes thinking about the consequences of failure. One of the manifestations of discomfort as a cognitive component of exam anxiety is thinking about the consequences of failure. The second component is emotionality and it also includes two aspects: one emotional and the other physiological. The emotional tends to make the test taker feel distressed, tense, and unpleasant. As for the physiological aspect, it is due to the influence of the autonomic nervous system which occurs right before the exam. Its manifestations are increased sweat secretion, especially in the hands, rapid breathing, rapid heartbeat, and muscle tension.
As society advances technologically and becomes more accomplished, the need to advance the individual increases on the basis of tests whose task is to diagnose and evaluate. Thus, the individual tends to place more importance on his or her test scores, which makes the fear of failure a phenomenon that is becoming more common. It has been found that the process of developing exam anxiety begins as early as the first two years of elementary school. Various studies such as Fernández-Castillo (2013); Bekomson and Mgban (2019) have found a negative relationship between the level of exam anxiety and the level of test performance, and this association becomes stronger towards the end of school or college years. Students exposed to stressful situations may develop maladaptive reactions and avoidance behaviors, especially when they lack the appropriate skills for coping with the situation. For example, when preparing for an exam or during an exam, concerns about punishment, the unknown, social disapproval as well as the rejection by people and the surroundings especially the parents or teachers, may arise. Consequently, test anxiety will always accompany students and they will regularly perform in an unsatisfactory manner. As a result, they either continue in this void loop of failure, or they drop out of the educational institution altogether in order to break this cycle of anxiety and failure. However, Amalu and Bekomson (2020) posit that because stressful stimuli occur in a normal educational context, severe negative reactions can be prevented or at least reduced by teaching the students some skills that help them deal with exam situations and prepare for the exam. Such preparation helps in lessening the harmful psychological and physiological effects of the exam on the students and reduce test anxiety to the minimum.
The main research question of this paper seek to examine the effect of using the breathing technique as a stand-alone technique for reducing exam anxiety. To answer this central question, the authors of this paper will try to examine a number of other questions:
- Does breathing practice alone reduce anxiety and cause improvement in performance?
- Is there a relationship between anxiety in general, exam, and depression?
- How do we deal with exam anxiety and make it easier for students?
- What can teachers do to reduce exam anxiety?
The authors of this study put forward the following null research hypotheses:
H1. Self-help treatment will not reduce the level of exam anxiety between both groups, and the effect will not be stronger among the latter group.
H2. Self-help therapy will not increase the sense of function between both groups, and the effect will not be stronger among the latter group.
H1.a. There will not be a positive relationship between exam anxiety and negative efficacy and its component factors such as anxiety, depression, and stress.
H2.a. There will not be a positive relationship between the amount of exercise and the therapeutic effect, so that the inclusion of more participants in the study, will not lead to more effectiveness in the treatment.
Limitations of the Study
The research is limited to the fourth year students at of the Faculty of Language at the English department in Baghdad University, of the academic year 2021-2022.
Definitions of the term ‘Exam Anxiety’
Exam anxiety is a special form of anxiety that arises in situations where the person believes that he/she is under evaluation and anticipates a negative outcome to assessments in society (Bonaccio, S., Reeve, C.L., and Winford, E.C. (2012) such as tests and other situations of assessment. Thus, sufferers of this disorder increase because of the importance of test success.
In addition, Ramirez, G., & Beilock, S. L. (2011) consider that examinations serve as the basis for decision-making. For this reason, the test case is likely to cause stress and anxiety. Von der Embse, N., Barterian, J., & Segool, N. (2013) report that between 20% and 40% of all students suffer from this disorder at a level that hinders their achievement and anxiety about the consequences of exams is widespread. Der Embse et al. (2013) state that apart from impairing the achievement level of students with exam anxiety, the feeling of anxiety has a negative impact on their quality of life as well.
Another definition of test anxiety is the one put forward by Akinsola and Nwajei (2013). They regard it as a state which is intrinsically psychological which influences people in any domain of life. As such, test anxiety results in strong and over-distress especially “when an individual is about to write a test, during the test taking process and even after the test has been taken” (Akinsola and Nwajei, 2013, p. 20).
Symptoms of Exam Anxiety
These are some of the symptoms of exam anxiety in different severity and categories. There are students with only moderate symptoms, where they can still pass the test. In contrast, there are students whose anxiety symptoms are so severe that they are unable to perform properly in the test and may experience a panic attack during the test. Hence, the following are types of symptoms exemplified by Porto (2013) which are physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms.
- Physical symptoms of exam anxiety include excessive sweating, tremors in the body, rapid breathing, and dry mouth. However, in extreme cases it includes fear of the exam which is manifested in fainting, nausea, panic attacks, and migraines. Contrarily, moderate levels of anxiety are usually no more than “butterflies in the stomach”, while in severe cases of anxiety there may be a development of physical illness.
- Cognitive symptoms of exam anxiety include negative self-talk, critical inner voice, negative thoughts expressing low self-esteem, insecurity, fear of failure, and in some cases, a fear of success. Students with test anxiety reported difficulty in concentrating while studying for the test as well as fainting episodes during the test, and difficulty in retrieving information. In extreme cases of test fear, anxious students may avoid the test so that to avoid dealing with their fear.
- Emotional symptoms of exam anxiety can be seen in cases of moderate anxiety, where students may experience stress, despair, and a sense of low self-esteem that prevents them from performing at their best. In severe cases of test anxiety, students may experience tantrums or depression.
Breathing Practice as part of Anxiety Treatment
Compared to other symptoms associated with sympathetic activation, breathing is more controlled and conscious. So, many treatment strategies designed to reduce anxiety rely on breathing practice as part of the treatment, especially as part of the relaxation technique learned (Amalu and Bekomson, 2020). Furthermore, breathing positively affects mental disorders. Such a techniques is often recommended the patient, wherein he/she performs slow breathing. In turn, this helps to integrate elements of the parasympathetic system in order to create a calming response. Consequently, respiration training has been found to have positive therapeutic effects in mental disorders. Hence, breathing has become an important component in the treatment of anxiety disorders especially when it comes to panic attacks.
Breathing Practice in Exam Anxiety
Paul, G., Elam, B., and Verhulst, S. J. (2007) reveal that many studies which were conducted over the past few decades have examined the effectiveness of breathing practice in reducing exam anxiety. Generally, the benefits attributed to the practice of breathing are related to the reduction of symptoms which result from the imbalance in pco2. Moreover, Paul et al. note that the practice of breathing has been a significant part of the need for practicing relaxation, but such a technique was always accompanied by teaching of relaxation and practicing it with professionals (Der Embse et al., 2013).
As a result, behavioral and cognitive approaches are effective in reducing exam anxiety and increasing learning skills. Hence, Der Embse et al. (2013) found that cognitive-behavioral intervention that includes learning relaxation through breathing practice is one of the Effective Approaches to Reducing Anxiety. In a similar vein, studies such as Creswell, C., Waite, P. and Cooper P. (2013) have shown that behavioral therapy is equally effective in cognitive therapy and it can even more effective in reducing anxiety. Therefore, these studies reveals that breathing technique is a significant part of relaxation practice, and it is always accompanied by teaching relaxation as well as practicing it with experts. That is, participants receive guidance from an expert who gears the practice of relaxation with the aid of breathing technique, twice a week for five weeks (Larson, M.J., Steffen, P.R., and Primosch, M., 2013).
Consequently, it can be assumed that combining respiratory intervention with relaxation guidance can be beneficial. However, a number of studies yield results that exemplify otherwise. For example, in their study, Brown, L. A., Forman, E. M., Herbert, J. D., Hoffman, K. L., Yuen, E. K., & Goetter, E. M. (2011) report that an intervention includes a combination of cognitive component as well behavioral component. For Brown et al, (2013), learning relaxation with the help of the breathing technique yields a decrease in poor performance during exams. In other words, practicing breathing with a guidance for relaxation can significantly contribute to reducing exam anxiety and ultimately offer a simple intervention for this common problem. Concurrently, given the scale of the phenomenon, it is necessary to find an intervention which does not require lengthy training with an expert and can be provided to people who suffer from test anxiety.
Research Participants and Design
The research participants include fourth year students from the English department at the Faculty of Languages in Baghdad University. They are (20) female students in total who are divided into (10) for the experimental group and (10) for the control group.
Since the aim of the research is to know the effect of the treatment method in reducing exam anxiety among the Students of the Faculty of Languages, the research can be represented by the following design:
|Post-test scale||Treatment method||Pre-test (scale)||Group|
|Exam Anxiety||Therapy physical training program||Exam Anxiety||Experimental|
|Exam Anxiety||X||Exam Anxiety||Control|
- Exam anxiety Scale:
- Authenticity of the tool
In order to check the accuracy of the scale, the researcher presented the exam anxiety scale prepared by Spielberger to a number of arbitrators with expertise and specialization in this field, and the arbitrators unanimously agreed on the validity of the research tool, and that it measures what was set to be measured after making some modifications.
20 students, where the value of the stability coefficient was (0.88), which is a good stability coefficient that meets the purposes of the research.
Counseling program using the treatment method.
First Set, Phase A
- Clarify the objectives of the program.
- Conclude a “contract” with the group.
- Understand the different responses to stressful situations: behavioral, mental, emotional, and psychological.
- 4. Recognize the internal dialogue and self-declarations that accompany the individual during the te
Aids Needed: Pages, Stationery, Scissors, and ‘Thoughts and feelings’ cards. The program is practical for teachers or trainers. So, in order to move to classes or groups, it is recommended to practice during a number of sessions on each of the proposed technique s, so as to accommodate to the new adaptation.
|I. A brief explanation of the purposes of the meetings.
Objective: To impart skills for dealing with exam anxiety.
2. A contract must be drawn up
with the students in the class (number of meetings, duration of each meeting, observance of the principles of group work: confidentiality, listening, legitimacy for passive participation
|3. The teacher asks the students to try to remember the situations that make them feel stressed:
A. Think I think about some stressful situation. How do you act when you are in a stressful situation?
b. What are you saying to yourself in these moments?
|* Awareness of stressful situations in general, and exam situations in particular.
* Awareness that the situation is perceived as threatening as a
result of the individual’s
perception of the situation
|* This can be done with eyes closed.
* Phrases such as “I will not pass” “There is no chance that I will pass the exam” may appear.
|4.After saying the answers
Helps pa1ticipants distinguish between different responses. Such as: coping self-talk (“Wait, you will succeed!”) Or non-
|*Clarification of the cognitive
|Coping behaviors, such as: evading a test, forgetting.|
|5. The teacher asks the students
to imagine a test situation: “Tomorrow there will be a test in … (for example: in
Mathematics) What happens to you from this moment?”
– What rule are you thinking about?
– How do you feel?
Based on the examples of the participants, the supervisor clarifies that each of the responses can appear before the exam, during the preparation, during and after the exam.
6. At this stage the teacher writes on the board a list of strengthening and disruptive sentences, and asks the students to explain why the sentences are positive or negative, and what types of sentences they chose in the previous part of the exercise. What are the feelings and reactions that arise as a result? Students will so11 the two types of thoughts in the table.
The teacher will emphasize that both types of thoughts are expressed during the test.
The teacher sums up the rationale: the goal was to identify the types of sentences we say to ourselves and the feelings that accompany them before the tests. By being aware of these processes we can control them
|* Using the imagination for the purpose of understanding and the internal processes (internal dialogue, irrational thoughts, focusing attention on the self instead of the exam).
Awareness of these processes and their definition will make it easier to deal with them (it is easier to deal with a defined difficulty)
(negative) and reinforcing
Preliminary identification of the thought patterns and internal dialogue of the participants regarding the tests.
Awareness that the
individual is to a large extent a victim of negative thoughts while at the same time one can certainly control stress responses and develop a more positive internal dialogue
|*With the help of this exercise you can examine emotional, cognitive responses and address different types of anxieties. For example: fear of failure, fear of disappointing those around, fear of forgetting the material, fear of a sudden test.
Positive thoughts can lead to
pleasant feelings: satisfaction, pleasure, writing the test effectively, while negative thoughts can lead to depression, despair and failure
|The teacher asks: Does anyone want to comment on the previous session?
After referring to the previous session, the teacher will say: “Today we will practice a special type of exercise is called ‘breathing exercises.’
-These exercises will help you learn how to release stress, when you will feel that you are too tense, or that you will feel that you have “butterflies in your stomach”. Relaxation in its various forms (muscle relaxation, deep breathing and mental relaxation) makes it easier for many people: when we release stress, we can divert the energy we have invested ourselves to constructive channels and deal with stressful situations more effectively. Its great advantage is that it can be done alone without being dependent on an external factor.
-The relaxation response serves as a natural way to reduce the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the fighting or escape response, so relaxation can help prevent diseases and symptoms related to the nervous system.
– It is important to practice this more than once. Once you have mastered the exercises well, you will be able to release the tension without anyone noticing. In order to practice you must observe a number of rules:
First, try to sit in your chair as comfortable as possible: lean back, place both feet on the floor and let your arms hang loosely and loosely. Do not try to release by force, let the body release the tension. Now close your eyes, and do not open them until I Tell you.
|Creating continuity for the previous meeting and providing an opportunity to bring up thoughts and feelings that arose during the week.
Releasing the tension that exists in the body. This release of physiological stress also allows for the release of mental stress at a later stage.
Emphasis on self-control that should be detailed about his feelings and thoughts.
|These are mainly deep breaths and not regional muscle relaxation.|
| (He who has a difficulty, can lower his head or cover his eyes with his hand).
Remember to follow the rules and follow the instructions very carefully, try seriously, pay attention to your body and its reactions.
LET US START
First we will learn how to use sedative breathing: eyes closed (whoever can), place hands folded on abdomen. The first thing we do will be a kind of competition: we will take a deep breath, as if we are about to blow the trumpet, with the lungs full of air:
When we learn to play the trumpet, or when we practice running, we inhale the air deep into the abdomen. Breathe deep from the stomach … Good… good and calm… and again inhale the air slowly full your lungs, let it release slowly. Remember that you are saying to yourself: Wait!
Notice how it becomes lighter, more relaxing, as if the tension is flowing out… and again let your stomach fill up like a balloon. Inhalation of air and release are the key to relaxation. Well do it again. Now, feel stop breathing, and we will see who can hold it longer, this is. Now release the breath… slowly… as slowly as you can. Let the air out, and feel a sense of peace and relaxation, continue the normal, quiet breathing, concentrating on the heavy sensations and heat of the body. Each time you exhale the air, try to feel how you are slowly sinking into a chair. When you inhale air, the chest expands, and when you exhale air, the chest contracts. Try telling yourself the moment!
|Relaxation leads to a reduction in reflexive activity, a reduction in muscle tension, and tends to lead to motor, mental and emotional relaxation.|
The teacher asks the participants in the round how they felt? Did they have difficulty letting go (feeling frustrated? (Does anyone feel dizzy?
It is important to emphasize that there are 3 steps in breathing exercises:
1. The practitioner does not yet master the technique.
2. The practitioner masters the technique, but cannot use it to reduce his stress symptoms.
Persevere in training and reach the third stage.
2. The teacher will say: Deep
breaths are one way to release tension, now we will turn to another skill and focus on the thought:
The teacher hands out cards to the participants: “Try to remember the last event related to the test, which made you feel stressed”
– What are the thoughts that went through your mind at that time?
– What were your answer? Participants voice their answers
and the teacher sorts them into 3
Events Thoughts Positive or negative
Practicing the distinction between relevant and rational thoughts and irrelevant and irrational
Awareness that irrelevant thoughts are focused on the individual, his self-esteem and test results. Thus, they interfere with him concentrating on the task.
Awareness that stress responses stem from the individual’s thoughts.
Addressing the issue of success and failure and the responses they evoke.
Draw conclusions regarding appropriate treatment of failure and draw constructive conclusions in the future.
Closing eyes is sometimes difficult (especially in first appointments). In these cases he let his eyes be covered with his hands or bowed his head. It is impo1tant to emphasize that sometimes there may be dizziness in the early stages due to:
1. Improper training.
2. The “shock” of oxygen to the brain after many correct exercises will ignore this feeling.
Meikenbaum (1972) introduced the need to discuss various irrational thoughts based on the theory of Alice (1973), in order to change inner speech.
Positive or negative
After the participants have sorted their thoughts (B) into irrational thoughts and beneficial thoughts – rational.
The teacher writes it down on the board.
It is important to emphasize that the response to the stressful situation stems from the thoughts and self-talk of the individual and not from the event itself. It is also important to emphasize the connection between irrational thought and an unconscious response, and between rational thought and a coping response.
The above table shows the Second Set, Phase B
Meeting goals: 1. Learn deep breathing exercises. 2. Continue the rationale (responses to the stress situation clarification of responses and timing) 3 .Open the topic of rational thinking and self-talk. Aids Needed: 1. A dimly lit room, 2. Mattresses or chairs, 3. Event cards, and 4. Stationery.
The next phase includes a different set of elevations, objectives and requires different aids to be accomplished.
Third set (Phase C) Meeting goals: 1. Amount and frequency of learned coping skills. 2. Receive feedback from participants. Aids needed: 1. Papers, 2. Stationery, and 3. Whiteboard (or slides)
|1. In order to refresh the memory, let’s repeat the skills we learned in the previous sessions. This can be done with the help of an oral discussion, a summary on the board or slides||Summary and internalization of the skills acquired during the plan.|
|2. At the end, there will be a free oral discussion, in which the participants will express their opinion about the program and its operation.
The similar and different sides should be emphasized:
|Amount and receipt of feedback from teachers I students.
Awareness of the components of concern, the internal dialogue which includes negative statements and irrelevant thoughts. All of these adversely affect performance.
|A. We all have in common reactions to stressful situations.
B. Each of us is different, so the reactions to stress are also different. It is important to clarify the concepts of stress, stress. It is also important to emphasize that stress has both negative and positive aspects.
3. In conclusion, it should be clarified that the negative statements adversely affect the individual’s performance and achievements in his tests and it is certainly possible to deal with the stressful situation effectively.
4. In my mind and body
A teacher asks students to close their eyes and imagine some event related to the test, paying attention to their thoughts and feelings.
Students will divide into pairs and draw the human body. On the part that symbolizes his head ,each participant will complete the following sentences:
Before the test I think…
On the part that symbolizes the heart, each student will complete the following sentence: Before a test I feel…
Giving legitimacy to thoughts, feelings, physiological feelings and behaviors.
Sharing with the group shared thoughts, which helps the participant feel less ‘unusual’ and more ‘normal.’
|(Tension=pressure from the outside that causes a feeling of discomfort on the inside)
In the hands and feet area, each student will answer the following question: How do I behave before the test?
Next, interested participants report what they have written (who is willing to share with the group the things they have written?)
At the end of this section – the students answer the following question:
· Where in my body do I feel tension?
These parts can be painted in the human body diagram.
At the end of the activity, the teacher will summarize the distinction between feelings, behaviors, thoughts and feelings of physical training.
Understanding the stress response as a series of controllable responses rather than as a single massive response.
In the group of teachers, the same activity can be done on regular cards without cutting profiles.
If it is difficult for participants to start, it is recommended that the facilitator starts with a personal example.
Discussion of the Results
The aim of the research is to determine the effect of the therapy of physical training program in reducing exam anxiety among female students at the English department, so as to reveal the significance of the differences between the experimental group and the control group. They are presented through the examination of the hypotheses as follows:
For the Hypotheses H1 and H1.a:
There are no statistically significant differences between the average scores of the experimental group members on the exam anxiety scale in the pre and posttests. Group members before applying the method is (165.00), the standard deviation is (3.06), the average score of the group members after applying the method is (123.00), and the standard deviation is (4,58). To find out the significance of the differences, the t-test was used for two interrelated samples. The test result showed that the calculated t-value amounted to (27, 25). So, it is greater than the tabular value, which is equal to (2, 26), at the level of significance (0.05), and the degree of freedom (9). This means that there are statistically significant differences in favor of the members of the experimental group aft.er applying the treatment method of therapy of physical training program. Table (1) shows that the guiding strategies and techniques used in the treatment method of physical therapy training program are effective in the patients’ awareness of themselves, their insight into their reality and in developing their sense of responsibility towards themselves and the society to which they belong. Such notions contributed to organizing their experiences and in developing cooperation, social interaction and integration with others in a way that is socially acceptable in the context
|standard deviation||average differences||Arithmetic average||Number||The test|
Table1. The results of the t-test for the d1fferenc between the average scores of experimental group before applying the treatment method.
For the hypotheses H2. And H2.a:
There are no statistically significant differences between the average scores of individuals: the experimental and control groups on the exam anxiety scale after applying the indicative program. This hypothesis was validated by extracting the arithmetic means and standard deviation for the scores of the members of the experimental group and the control group after applying the treatment method herapy of physical training program. Consequently, it is shown that the mean scores of the experimental group is (123, 00), the standard deviation is (4.58), the mean scores of the members of the control group are (164, 00), and the standard deviation is (4, 38). Also, in order to know the significance of the differences between them, (t-test) was used for two independent samples, which showed a result that the calculated t-value counted to (44.20) which is greater than the tabular value, which is equal to (2.10). Moreover, the level of significance is (2.10) and the degree of freedom is (18). This indicates the existence of significant differences where the statistical significance is in favor of the experimental group after applying the realistic treatment method, and table (2) indicates it. This is an indication of the effectiveness of the realistic treatment method in reducing exam anxiety among the university students. This is because of two reasons. First, the development of the indicative plan by the researchers came in a manner commensurate with the needs of the students and the age range, which in turn helped them to understand the vocabulary of the counseling sessions. Second, the situations and questions that were chosen during the counseling were similar to the students’ life situations and were identical to the situations in which the students were actually living in, and as such it gave them enough time to practice the topics of these sessions outside the counseling process.
|standard deviation||average differences||Arithmetic average||Number||The test|
Table 2. The t-value of the differences between the average scores of individuals of the two experimental and control groups after applying the method Therapy physical training program.
The researchers conclude that the group counseling method that was used in the training process included contents from free and objective discussions which were based on listening, understanding, and avoiding unconstructive criticism. The objectives encouraged individuals to present their ideas without hesitation or fear. This in turn which triggered their self-confidence after which each one of them felt that his/her opinions and ideas did actually occupy an important place with respect to others. In a similar vein, the guiding strategies and techniques that were used in the counseling sessions had a clear effect in creating an atmosphere of affection and harmony among the participants. Hence, the results of this paper is in agreement with the findings of the previous studies, such as a study of physical therapy training program.
Akinsola, E. F. & Nwajei, A. D. (2013). Test anxiety, depression and academic performance: assessment and
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