Human Dependence on Computers and Artificial Intelligence
and its Effects
Sana Issa Srour (PhD)()
Huda Abdullah Hamad Al Falahi()
تلقي هذه المقالة الضوء على بعض المفاهيم المتنوعة لطبيعة الذكاء الاصطناعي والروبوتات بالإضافة إلى بعض مزايا مثل هذا المجال العلمي المتغير وعيوبه. تساعد هذه المفاهيم في إثارة العديد من الأفكار في ما يتعلق بما يجب القيام به عندما يتعامل الناس، بما في ذلك العلماء، مع مثل هذه الاختراعات الرقمية. لذلك، كلما زادت المعرفة التي نحصل عليها عن الذكاء الاصطناعي، أصبحنا أكثر استنارة واهتمامًا بحياتنا ومستقبلنا.
الكلمات المفتاحية: الذكاء الاصطناعي ، الآلات، علوم الروبوتات والروبوتات، البشر، التحكم.
This article sheds light on some of the diverse notions of the nature of Artificial Intelligent and robots as well as some of the advantages and disadvantages of such a changing scientific field. These notions help in triggering many ideas in terms of what needs to be done when people, and scientists included, come to cope with such digital inventions. So, the more knowledge we get about Artificial Intelligence, the more enlightened we become and more caring about our life and future.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Machines, Robots and Robotics, Humans, Control.
Human beings are created in a perfect image. This means that every entity in humans doesn’t need to be fortified. Although humans learn many things in their life, their experience in various domains is ongoing. That is, human beings are in constant progress. Knowledge in various domains has produced many scholars who work hard and strive for making our worls a perfect place. Scientists in the diverse fields as well as pioneers in the different aspects of life continuously update their knowledge iinformation. This is becauce if human beings stop learning, they will stop to exist and as a result, they will perish. Consequently, everything aroun them will become outdated, old and rusty.
Humans are in continuous change. This change also affects everything, including inventions, scientific discoveries, and society. One aspect of change is interms of scientific discoveries. Scientific experiments used to be done manually and the results used to be recorded on sheets of paper. The experiment used to take months and it needed many scientists and working hands. However, a shift to digitization facilitated every aspect of science. With the introduction of computers, many alaboratory equipments are guided by computer programs that accomplish the required job. So, all the scientists need to do is to put the examined specimen in the lab equipment and load up the information and the instructions of the lab test into the computer. Consequently, the computer will do the experiment instead of the scientists and then the results are digitally extracted, where a document with charts and graphs is printed out.
Therefore, the computer domain has introduced a more sophisticated notion of digitalization and digital function as a result of human experiments and advancement in digital technology. So, human beings have inveted an artificial digitized intelligence which is aims to help them in the various domains of life. From this point onward, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is invented.
All About AI and Robots
Horner (2021) in his article titled The human side of artificial intelligence and analytics, belives that AI started as an imaginary aspect from movies. An example is the leading “actor” in the classic 1968 science fiction film “2001: A Space Odyssey”. This movie introduces artificial intelligence and how it becomes so intelligent to the extent that it dominated human beings. So, the prime development of artificial intelligence has progressed into becoming an automated robot. Artificial-intelligence (AI) and machine-learning-powered robots and computers are the main scientific achievements of humans. However, Horner poses an important question: will artificial intelligent robots and computers dominate our world? Horner says: “no – not in 2001, not now and not in, well, forever, and they will not give humans minor roles and will not eliminate”.
Today’s robots and computers can do an amazing number of chores faster and better than humans, but they only know what they’ve been given data, in the form of instructions, which is uploaded into them by humans and what they have taught themselves was also through more data, provided by human beings. Computers and robots know what they know, but they have no imagination. This is because they have been invented by humans through technological machines. Therefore, robots and computers don’t dream of what’s possible. Notions of dreaming, imagining, and planning are the main elements which distinguish humans from robots.
Some scientists and inventors believe that it’s true that for many years that robots have replaced many jobs once held by humans and these robots will continue to do so at an increasing rate. However, opponents of robots’ domination believe in the only idea that that the demand for such innovation will create more and better-paying jobs only humans can do. These jobs are aided by AI and machine learning technology. The debate today is whether robots and Artificial Intelligence will dominate humans, but a growing number of analysts consider it only to be a win-win situation, where a balance is created among humans and robots.
At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, Darling (2021) is a research specialist who tackles social robotics and conducts experiments and studies on the interaction between human and the robot. In an interview with AUVSI for technology, she highlights the topic of whether robots will dominate humans and take their places in many fields. Darling (2021) believes that
“Robots are coming and they’re getting smarter, evolving from single-task devices into machines that can make their own decisions and autonomously navigate public spaces. From transportation systems, hospitals and the military, to the robotization of our workplaces and households, robots will be everywhere and will increasingly interact with people” (Darling, 2021, p. 2).
However, Darling poses important questions and then she provides the answer. Her questions are as follows:
- Where does the true potential of AI and robotics lie, and will robots supplement human ability or replace it?
- What can and can’t robots and AI do?
- What opportunities and challenges should we anticipate in the future of human-robot interaction?
- What societal challenges will we face in a future with robots (ethical, legal and social)? (Darling, 2021, p. 3)
After presenting scientific analysis of robotics, computers and how they acquired artificial intelligence, Darling answers that “humans and robots are better together” (p. 3).
In May 2021 issue of the scientific magazine Analytics magazine, the scientist Iversen (2021) as cited in Horner (2021), stresses in an interview that two human aspects which are the mind and the heart play a decisive role in many companies. This is done through providing corporate decision-making as well as data-driven information for the betterment of the company. In fact, robotics and artificial intelligence can contribute to marketing and advertising strategies by helping the producers and company leaders. This help is through providing information via questionnaire to the public and gather data on the preferred consumption product and the best places to market it. This in turn world boost production and profits. Furthermore, Iversen (2021) states that
“You can’t let the data dominate what you do. You have to have a strategy and a plan. It all starts with the strategy, and with the mind to help develop the strategy and with the heart to feel the passion behind the vision” (p. 3).
What follows next includes opinions about the effectiveness of Artificial Intelligence and an account of whether people are with or against robots and its existence in the life of the human beings.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
Duggal (2022) presents six advantages of AI which we humans can benefit from in our various fields of life as follows:
One. Because Humans make mistakes, we must use AI
Duggal (2022) considers that machines take decision based on previous data records. They use specialized computer language which is called algorithms. Upon using them the chances of errors are minimal. Therefore, this is considered an achievement because solving complex problems requires complex and intricate calculations that can be done without any margin of error. Also, business organizations use digital help in order to interact with their users. Such a help in turn assists them to save a good amount of time under their sleeve. The demand for personal user’s businesses is fulfilled. So consumers don’t have to wait. Robots are programmed to provide high quality assistance to the user. Therefore, there is no room for error with artificial intelligence. The robots are bombarded with information. Moreover, robots are designed and used in such a way that they cannot be modified or get disfigured or breakdown in a hostile environment.
Two. Robots don’t get tired and fade out easily
Artificial Intelligence and the science of robotics is used in mining and other fuel exploration processes. Robots can aid in aquatic explorations and scan the deep oceans. As such, they overcome the limitations of humans. Because of the programs that are built in inside the robots, they can perform a more perilous task with and ‘over’ hard work while maintaining a greater responsibility. In addition, robots do not fade out easily.
Three. AI helps in our everyday activities
A robot called Siri is very sophisticated. It listens to humans and performs any task in just one finger tap. This is because it has a built-in GPS. It helps one to travel the world. For example, at work, robots predict what the employee will type. So, they know almost everything about humans. The reason is that they have recorded the human behaviors in the form of digital information. So, upon human behaving in a particular way, robots search for a behaviors pattern. Through this recorded patters, robots are able to predict what humans will do next, based on pre-installed data.
Another example is through using a computer, where it utilizes the “autocorrect feature”. It enables the robot to understand what the person is trying to say and gives him/her the sentence in an almost-perfect manner. Other examples include the detection of people’s faces while they post photos on social media and tag others. In this process, the algorithms interfere, such as on Google photos where the automata simultaneously creates a folder of the persons, with the aid of their faces. In addition, many financial and banking institutions employ Artificial Intelligence. It is beneficial in managing and organizing the data of the companies. Also, in the banking sector the use of AI has succeeded in detecting fraud and falsified transactions when it comes to the system of smart cards.
Four. AI makes rational decisions
Logic is of supreme importance and priority. So, highly advanced organizations have digital assistants which aid them in order to interact with the users and save the need for human resources. Accordingly, the right program decisions are taken if robots work upon them in a rational manner. However, humans are full of emotions and this as a result interferes in accomplishing the targets of many jobs. Contrarily, with artificial thinkers, no distraction takes place. This is because robots don’t have an emotional aspect. As a result, this makes robots think in a logical way. Also, they do not have emotions and emotions cannot be recorded by them. Hence, they are not subjected to mood swings. They have no mood whatsoever, because they are robots and possess pure intelligence. Accordingly, they are productive all the time.
Five. Medical Purposes
Medical aid is something superb with respect to AI in relation to humans. The existence of medical applications has widened the scope of this field with the AI assistance. Doctors diagnose the patients’ health and possible risks via AI as well as the medical applications. Such applications come in handy in medical education to students. In addition, medical applications feed the machine on the side effects of different medicines. In the era of digitization, professionals in medicine train and practice with artificial surgery simulators. Such simulators employ medical applications which enable the doctors to detect and monitor discordances in neurology and stimulate the various functions of the brain. Also, delicate radiosurgery is conducted while simultaneously preserving the surrounding tissues of the organ under operation. Thus, intricacy is clearly visible through AI in medicine.
Six. No tiredness, no breaks, but continuous work
An automated machine with AI requires no break at all, which is the opposite of humans. This is because the automata is programmed to keep working for long hours in a continuously high quality performance without any sense of boredom distraction or fatigue. Thus, consecutive and prolonged working hours do not tire the automated machine Therefore, the notion on non-stop work without fatigue is a major benefit for humans, especially those who need a rest from time to time in order to be more productive and efficient. Contrarily, as for machines, their AI stamina is not influenced by any outside factor and it does not prevent continuous work.
The more we look at how advantageous AI is, the more we think that no disadvantages shade the automated AI machinery. This is as such to the extent that we tend to view AI as the utmost perfection of the human mind which invented it. However, Dataflair (2021) presents some advantages of AI as follows.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
Every sword has two edges and every coin has two sides. This means that anything in the world includes two aspects: good and bad, productive and non-productive; similar to all concepts in life: day and night, summer and snow, fire and water, and strong and weak. This also applies to Artificial Intelligence.
One. IA’s huge cost
AI is invented at a high cost because of its complexity as a machine. Also, maintenance and spare parts cost hugely. So, AI manufacturers depend on international funding for scientific experimentations and projects. So, human luxury at the expense of AI is not free at all. According to Birdzigh (2022), in order to maintain AI and boost it, one must invest in people and talented scientists and as such
“Skilled senior data scientists can cost upwards of $150-250 per hour on a project basis or $500,000 full-time. You will also likely need to invest in ongoing training and research time to keep your team up-to-date on the latest AI breakthroughs” (Birdzigh, 2022, p. 12).
This is a sample cost of AI among other important factors which amalgamate to establish, maintain, and upgrade AI continuously. Hence, AI software programs must always be updated, like all other digital applications wherein programmers must provide for the needs of the AI environment which is always in constant change. Furthermore, if AI breaks down, its fixing and maintenance require high costs and in turn, more time is needed for an AI recovery as well.
Two. The human is not replicated
Despite being ultra-smart, an AI machine cannot replicate a human. Although machines are rational they don’t possess emotions or any moral values. Accordingly, machines don’t have social distinction or ethical criteria. They don’t know what ethical, legal, and cultural or social value is. Therefore, machines and because of this, do not possess their own judgment potentials. In this respect, machines do what is required from them to do. This is because they are programmed. So, AI machines with artificial intelligence have pre-installed information which guides them to do what they are required to perform. Thus, they have no sense of judgment for what is right or wrong. As such, given a situation which is not pre-installed makes AI machines to err and sometimes to break down.
Three. No improvement with continuity
Artificial intelligence cannot improve or upgrade with experience. Machines perform the same function again and again. They change their function only if a different command is given to them. So, in the long run, they wear out, fade, and break down. Although computers and machines store enormous amount of information and a lot of data, the way such information is accessed and used is very different from that of the human intelligence.
Furthermore, Artificial Intelligence can’t deal with the vivid environment. Therefore, machines are unable to change their behavior to the constantly changing environments. Many scientists exclaim whether it is really exciting to replace humans with AI machines or even robots. The answer is that AI doesn’t possess feelings and because of this, working with all of one’s heart or full passion is out of the question in the reals of robotics and AI machines. This is a quality of the human beings. Also, machines do not have a sense of belonging, socialization, or even a human touch or aspect. In this manner, machines or AI fail to recognize and distinguish between a hardworking social member and an unproductive member.
Four. AI has no creativity
Because machines are programed and they are ‘fed’ what to do, they can’t be creative. So, machines only do what they are being commanded to do. Although they help people in designing and creating for example, engineering models, buildings, or houses, machines can’t equal the power, capacity, and creativity of the human brain. What adds to this notion is that human beings are sensitive but at the same time, they are intellectual beings. In this manner, they are very creative. As a result, they can generate ideas and think out of the box. So, they use all their five senses to comprehend as well as communicate with their surroundings. These are things which a machine with AI does not possess.
In this article, the authors have presented some notions as to the nature of AI and robots as well as some of the advantages and disadvantages. These help in bringing forward what needs to be done in terms of coping with such digital inventions. These notions, to Birdzigh (2022), must be well thought of by people and scientists in order to keep this super-human invention at bay and under the control of the humans. Humans are guided by their feelings, which is a notion that is lacking in machines. In fact, no matter how updated and upgraded a machine becomes, it can’t have the inherent cognitive abilities of the human brain. Machines are unable to clone or replicate these cognitive abilities. As such, the advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence are evaluated. We as machine users, whether of computers or other digital devices, can only judge how AI affects us and how will it progress in the future. Of course, there will be further developments of AI in the coming years and it will improve the way we think, explore new horizons, and discover new inventions. However, the final decision of whether AI will control us is ours. This is because we humans are the ones who invented it. Hence, it is up to us to decide if we want AI to dominate our world or not. Actually, science exists in order to facilitate things around the world and the tasks for humans. Therefore, let us join forces with AI and use it for our benefits and not for our destruction.
Birdzigh, L. (2022). How to decrease the cost of AI. Krista.
Darling, K. (2021). The future of human robot interaction. AUVSI.
Dataflair (2021). Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence – A Threat or a Blessing?
Duggal, N. (2022). Advantages and disadvantages of artificial intelligence.
Horner, P. (2021). The human side of artificial intelligence (and analytics). Analytics (April).
Iversen, H. K. (2021). The human side of artificial intelligence (and analytics). Analytics (May).
 – Applied Linguistics Lecturer at the Translation Department, Islamic University of Lebanon