Ibn Al-Raheb and his Historical Records
Mohammed Majeed Hameed Bilal)(
GHANIM BASER HUSSEIN AL-HUSSEINAWI)(
The seventh century AH (thirteenth century AD) is one of the important centuries in the field of Christian authorship a number of Egyptian Christian historians have dedicated themselves to codifying history.In the Middle Ages, historians were distinguished by the abundance of knowledge, their writings had a great role in studying the history of Egypt through the ages, their keenness to accurately mention news and events, as in many accounts, their reliance on eyewitness accounts of some events the hearing of events from reliable contemporary narrators, or the biographies and translations preserved in monasteries that often included references to Egypt’s news and events. Among the most prominent of them are: Abu Shaker bin Al-Raheb, who set a general chronology from the beginning of creation to his time and the Makin Jirgis Ibn al-ʿAmīd, author of the book, (History of Muslims). The two books are of great importance as two sources of the history of Egypt (1) under Islamic rule.
The research is divided into four demands: the first provides details about name, lineage and birth, the second highlights his culture and the most important features of his personality and writings,the third presents an analytical study the book, the history by Ibn Al-Raheb while, the fourth presents the general features of the historical approach of Ibn al-Raheb and the importance of his book, History of Ibn al-Raheb.
- The first requirement: his name, lineage, birth and death
First: The lineage of Ibn Al-Raheb (2)
The opinions of the researchers varied regarding the name of the Egyptian Christian historian, Ibn Al Rahib”, the name of his father, and their origin. We find many historians confuse the name of this historian with the names of this historian, and his father, and they attribute the works of one to the other. some historians another man who became famous in the era of Ibn al-Raheb and was named after him. Thus, we have reviewed the opinions of ancient historians and modernists in this regard.
- In his two books titled “The Book of Proof in Complementary Laws and Neglected Obligations” (3) and “The Rules” (4), the author calls himself as: Abu Shaker Bin Al Rahib Abi Al Karam Boutros Bin Al Muhadhab.
- Abi Al-Barakat bin Kabir, in his book ((Misbah Al-Zolma fi Idah al-Khidma)) (5), and Ibn Al-Assal, in his book “The Fundamentals of Religion” (6), call him “Al-Nosh’ Abu Shakir Al-Sunnah Al-Raheb Bin Al-Ajal Al-Raheb”.
- His lineage is mentioned in a complementary manuscript of the New Testament, dating back to the year 647 AH / 1249 CE (7): “Sheikh Al-Nosh’ Abu Shaker Ibn Al-Sheikh Al-Sina Al-Abi Al-Karam Boutros Al-Raheb Bin Al-Mohdheb.”
Below are the opinions of ancient historians about the lineage of the historian. Apparently, it appears through our review of these opinions that there are minor differences concerning his lineage; some of them see that his name is Abu Al-Karam Boutros bin Al-Muhadhab, while others see that his name is Al-Nosh ‘Abu Shakir and his father’s name is Sheikh Al-Ajal Al-Raheb. However, it is appropriate here to refer to the modern historians, and take into consideration their views.
There are many debates presented by Modern historians concerning the issue of the attribution of Ibn Al-Raheb: the first as set by Omar Reza Kahhaleh (8), Karl Brockelman (9) and Louis Sheikho (10) believes that his name is Abu Shaker Boutros Ibn Al-Rahib Abi Al-Karam bin Al-Muhadhab, and the other as discussed by Gaur Jaraf (11), Kamel Saleh Nakhleh (12), and Salim Suleiman (13) claims that his name is Nosh’ Abu Shaker bin Al-Rahib Abi Al-Karam Botros bin Al-Muhadhab. However, only Ramzi Tadros in the Coptic circle of knowledge differed from other historians since he claimed that his name is “Ibn Shakir Ibn Al Rahib Bin Boutros Ibn Al Muhadhab, known as Abu Al Karam” (14).
Within this context, there are also different opinions of ancient and modern historians concerning the issue of the lineage of Ibn al-Raheb. The opinions are stated and analyzed in the following conclusion:
- The historian’s name is Nosh’, which is an shortcut of the name, Caliphate’s Origin as in the history of Cyril ibn Laqlaq no. 75 (633-641AH) (15)
- His nickname is Abu Shaker, and we do not know whether he acquired this nickname from the name of his eldest son according to the usual practice in that concern, or whether this nickname was given to him without having children (16)
- His father was Sheikh Al-Senna (17) Aba Al-Majd (18)
- When Sheikh Al-Senna entered the monastic order and was appointed as a chaplain to the Church of Abu Sarraj in Egypt, he was known as Boutros and his title was Abu Al-Karam (Al- Mokarram) (19), and later on he became known as Al-Rahib.
- His grandfather is called al-Mohadeb.
Hence, it is clear that the author’s name is Al-Nosh ‘Abu Shakir as most modern historians claim because they believe that Boutros is the name of his father after he entered the monastic order in the Abu Serjah Church (20).
Second: The birth and origin of Ibn al-Raheb
Moreover, historians and translators of Ibn al-Raheb’s history also have different notions about the date of his birth and death. Actually, we do not know precisely the year in which Abu Shakir bin Al-Rahib was born, but the confirmed dates in his life that end in the year 659 AH / 1260 CE are related to the event of his appointment as a deacon in the “Moalaka” church and his years of writing books and transcribing them in his own handwriting between 663 AH / 1264 CE and 681 AH / 1282 CE. Kamel Saleh Nakhleh, in his book :”History and List of the Coptic Patriarchs of Alexandria“, suggests that was born during the period when there was Patriarchal void in Mark’s Holy See before the Patriarchate was assumed by Cyril III ibn Laqal, a period that extends around twenty years (from 1216 CE to 1235 CE) (22).The author did not mention what he relied on during his endeavors to decide the year in which Ibn al-Raheb was born. Contemporary patriarchs of Ibn al-Raheb mention a Patriarch other than Cyrill III who is Athanasius III ibn Kalil, the patriarch who took over the from 1250 CE to 1261 CE.
Also, the Pope John VII, who took over twice: the first from the year 1262 AD to the year 1268 CE, and the second from the year 1271 CE to the year 1292 CE. The Polpe Gabriel III, who took over from 1268 CE to 1271 CE. Kamel Saleh Nakhleh states that Ibn al-Raheb lived until the time of Pope Theodosius II, the Pope who took over from 1294 CE to 1300 CE (23). As for Wadih the Franciscan, he summed up to say that Ibn-Raheb died after the year 1270 CE, and it is likely that he died in the last ten years of the thirteenth century (24).
Meanwhile, Louis Sheikho did not mention any date of the birth or death of Ibn al-Raheb. As he simply argued that Ibn al-Raheb emerged in the late thirteenth century AD, stating only one date in the life of Ibn Al-Raheb, a date in which he wrote the book “Healing in the Disclosure of What Is Hidden and What Disappeared from the Divinity of Christ” in the year 1268 AD (25). The crimes of Zaidan and Shakir Mustafa determine the date of his appointment as a deacon in the monastery of Al-Maalaka in the year 1270 CE and the date of his death in the year 1282 CE (26). As for Brockelman, he did not specify his date of birth nor did he decide on the date of his death, stating that he was still alive in 1282 AD (27).
Consequently, it is clear that there is no determinant of the birth and death of Ibn al-Raheb. However, the assumption closest to the truth is the opinion of Kamel Salih Nakhleh that suggested that he was born during the void in the Pop’s See, between (1216 – 1235 AD), specifically, after the year 1228AD, when he was appointed as a deacon in the year 1260AD, the closest assumption is that he was born after the year 1228AD, whereby church laws require that the age of the deacon should not exceed thirty-three years upon the latter’s appointment.Therefore, the closest assumption is that he was born after 1228 A.D.As for the date of his death, the opinions of Jerji Zidan and Shaker Mustafa are likely to be expressed, as they suggest that Ibn al-Raheb died in 1282 AD, explaining that soon after this date, the sources were unable to track his news.
As for his childhood, the sources that translated Ibn Al-Raheb’s life did not mention anything about his early upbringing, nor did Ibn al-Raheb himself mention anything about his life in his various books;nevertheless, he was mostly brought up on the basis of scientific and religious teachings;his father was one of the monks of the monastery of Abi Sarjah, and before that he was a clerck for the Royal Adli Army, in addition to taking over the education of the children of Al-Asal – before teaching his son Ibn Al-Raheb – who later became one of the brightest writers and scholars of Christianity in the thirteenth century AD. Although we are not familiar with Ibn Al-Raheb’s early upbringing, his books and his position as a deacon in the Maalaka Church (28) clearly indicate that since his early childhood , he grew up on the basis of religious principles.
- His culture, the most significant features of his personality, and his works.
First: His Culture and the most significant features of his personality
Ibn al-Rahib’s sayings and books clearly explain that he was well experienced scholar in theological sciences, well versed in astronomy and mathematics, acquainted with the science of history, Coptic and Arabic languages. As for his dialectic, philosophical and mathematical experience, it becomes clear through the division adopted in his book “Healing in the Disclosure of What Is Hidden and What Disappeared from the Divinity of Christ” (29),where he used the image of the tree of life in Paradise as a model for dividing his book into three large origins, from which a group of many branches comes out. In the introduction, he focuses his research on the issue of the name of God (God – God) among Christians and Muslims, and the positive and negative attributes of God (30), and the mystery of the Trinity. Also, he uses in his research mental proofs in addition to geometric shapes like a triangle and explains these principles in the rest of the book.
However, the author’s theological and philosophical culture is evident in his book “Al-Burhan” (the Evidenc), by drawing many texts on philosophies and Christian theology besides the ancient Medieval Literature, non-Christian ages, and Christian philosophers,Hermes and Trismegistus, and Arab philosophers, Ibn Sina, al-Ghazali, al-Razi and al-Farabi. As for Christian philosophers, he used to quote from a Christian doctor called Gerges bin Bakhoum, as well as from the Nestorian Mukhtar Ibn Batlan, and the Patriarch Said ibn Batriq, author of the book “al-Burhan” (the evidence), (31). In his book called “dates“, his knowledge and astronomical culture appears; it is the book that includes chronological tables of days, years and figures based on the principles of astronomy.
As for his linguistic culture, it is shown in his book entitled “The Grammar of the Coptic Language”. This book, the historian’s linguistic skills are shown, in which he presented word components by arranging letters, sentences, and word-and-phrase tools; also shows the extent of his extensive knowledge of the Coptic language and its vocabulary, taking vocabulary from previous authors ,such asYones Bishop Samanoud, and from the book “Treasures” of Saint Cyril. Further, he takes from the sacred books, ritual books, and biographies of the saints. (Graf) talks about him saying: ((It is possible that the dictionary that the author planned and announced has never appeared, or that it has been lost)) (32).
As for his familiarity with Arabic and grammar, it shows in all his books in Arabic, along with his easy and non-reckless style, while avoiding the use of colloquial language, like most of the Christian literature written in Arabic at that time. Thus, his culture becomes evident on several levels (language, philosophy, history, theology… etc.)
As for Ibn al-Raheb’s books, this is the list:
- Book of “Healing in the Disclosure of What Is Hidden and What Disappeared from the Divinity of Christ” (33). He wrote it in 1268 AD, and it is considered a source of teaching (Theology of Christ), where the author focused more on interpreting the texts of the Old and New Testaments rather than on presenting doctrines (34).
- The book, “The Evidence in Complementary Laws and Neglected Obligations.” (35) was written by Ibn al-Raheb, as it is mentioned in the introduction, in the year 1270 AD. It aims to teach general matters related to religion and ecclesiastical affairs in a practical way. The book consists of 50 issues or articles that the author promotes without a strong logical arrangement, for example he talks about the annihilation of the world, freedom of will, divine providence, destiny, fasting, circumcision, divorce, etc. (36).
- A book on the grammar of the Coptic language (37): Graf describes this book by saying that it is the book that precedes chronologically the theological literature by Ibn al-Raheb; it is a book in the Coptic grammar, written in 1264 CE (38). It appears that the author was planning to develop a glossary of the Coptic language – as announced in his book, however, in the words of Graf, this book never appeared or was lost (39).
- Book of Dates: According to Abi Al-Barakat’s accounts, wrote a history in which he made a great effort and referred to other historians and sciences, especially religious sciences (40).However, this book should not be coined with the book “The History of Ibn Al-Raheb” as the “Book of dates” in its largest part is not a history book but rather an astronomical book consisting of 51 chapters for calculating or evaluating the days, years and feasts (known as the Episcopal) in the Coptic Church. A book that is a testimony of its mastery in astronomy, and it has been translated into the Ethiopian language (41).
III. The History of Ibn al-Raheb (Analytical Study)
In this analytical study, Ibn al-Raheb’s Book of History will be referred to. Most likely, Abu Shakir bin Al Raheb wrote the history book in 1259 CE. The following was mentioned in the introduction to the chapter on the history of the patriarchs of Alexandria: (“We begin with God’s help by writing the names of the Egyptian patriarchs of the Holy See of Alexandria from the Evangelical Evangelist of the Apostle to our time which is the year of Nine Hundred fifty-five (Coptic calendar of martyrs) corresponding to the year six hundred and fifty-seven Hijri)” (44).
This indicates that the book “History” is one of the first books written by Ibn Al-Raheb – if not the first of them at all. We have known in the past that the date of his authorship of theological and linguistic books is limited between the years (1264 – 1282 AD), according to the testimony of the author himself in the introductions to these books (43).
As for the language in which the author wrote his history, despite that Ibn al-Raheb was a Christian clergy, fluent in the Coptic language (44), he preferred to write his History book in Arabic, which indicates that the Arabic language at that time (seventh century AH / thirteenth century AD) was the official language prevailing throughout Egypt; it also indicates the extent to which the language has become so popular that it has become the language of authorship and communication, not only among the common people but also among educated clergymen and Christians, so that one of the modern Coptic linguists says: ((In the thirteenth century the dominant language was The Arabic language, the Coptic scholars have put all their theological literature in Arabic)) (45).
These are the stages that the history of Ibn Al-Rahib went through:
1- The book was known for the first time by the Latin translation made by Abraham Ecchellensis, the Maronite, and published in Paris in the year 1651 entitled
Chronicon Orienntale, nuns primum Latinitale donatum(46) etc. parisiis.
- Then Abraham Ecchellensis reviewed it again in 1685 CE (47).
- Later on, it was reprinted by Yusuf Shamun Al-Samani and attached to it a second translation by him, with a review of the first translation in Venice in 1729 AD, and published under the title:
Chronicon Orientale patri Rahebi Aegyptii primum ex Arabico laline redditum ab Abrahemo(48) Ecchellensi, nunc. Nora interpretatione dontum ejusdem dissertatioms IV, venetiis 1729. [Cerpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinas Tom XVII].
- As for the Arabic text, it means, by its nature, Father Louis Cheikho the Jesuiton the Vatican copy. With the Latin translation in 1903 AD, then a photocopied was reprinted in Lauvain, France, in 1962 (49).
Moreover, there are common topics covered in the history of Ibn al-Raheb. Ibn al-Raheb’s history provides a general summary of history, starting with Adam, then Israeli religious history, passing through Greek and Roman to Jesus (peace be upon him). Afterward, the author comes with complete lists of the names of the Roman emperors, the Byzantines, Muslim caliphs since the rise of Islam until reign, as well as the names of the Ayyubid kings and the Mamluk sultans until the year 1259 AD. His history ends with a list containing the names of the patriarchs of Alexandria with their biographies, arranged on tables; first, the name of the one who mentioned his biography, origin, lineage, birth and attributes, second, the number of years of his rule, and third, the outcome of the foregoing years, and under the news of Muslims he added a fourth table listing the Hijri and Gregorian years.
Ibn al-Rahib divided his general history into an introduction and several chapters dealing with various historical topics, sometimes as series. This is in addition to the short introductions that precede some of the chapters and the topics addressed by Ibn Al-Raheb in his history can be explained as follows:
- The Opening and Introduction
The historian started his book by saying: In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful, then he mentioned a short introduction (50) in which he presented the topics that he will address in the book, the goal of his book, and the effort exerted (51).
- The chapter of the forefathers (52)
In this chapter of his general history, he talks about the beginning of creation with Adam (peace be upon him) and the period in which he and his children lived after him, their years and their deeds and then he compares all of these to the history of the Jews and what they established in their books, then the history of the prophets from Noah (peace be upon him) to Moses (peace be upon him), their deeds and periods of prophecy. Also, he compares these years to what was mentioned in the Torah, and what came in the books of the Jews, explaining the difference and deficiency in their dates, and in this it is all quoted from a Jewish historian called (Aba Fakhr al-Muntaser) (53).
- A special chapter on the names of the Greek kings
Ibn al-Raheb speaks of the kings of Greece very briefly, merely mentioning their names, surnames and the duration of their rule. The author began this chapter by talking about Alexander the Great (336 – 323 BC), his surname, reputation, and duration of his reign, then he mentions the rest of the kings of Greece according to the chronology of the rule of each of them until he reached Augustus Caesar (43 BC – 14AD). Finally, this chapter concludes by talking about the birth of Christ (peace be upon him) and the most important events that occurred at the time of his birth, focusing on including the dates of these events.
- A special chapter on the names of Roman kings Caesars (54)
It lists the names of the Roman Emperors, the periods of their rule, the foregoing years and it sometimes includes the most important events that occurred in their era, with brevity. Among the most important events that Ibn al-Raheb was concerned with mentioning in this chapter and singling out a special part for it is the destruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Titus (79-81AD) (55).
Ibn al-Raheb began his talk about the Roman emperors by mentioning Caesar Augustus (43 BC – 14 CE). Then, he continues to display their names and the total incidents during their reign until he reaches the era of Hercules (610 – 641 AD).
- Then Ibn al-Raheb begins in his book by presenting a history of the Islamic state, first with the title: (mentioning the beginning of the Islamic state) and then presenting Islamic history with a short introduction (56), in which he mentioned the date of the beginning of the prophetic migration compared to other histories, explaining the approach that he will adopt in the history of the Islamic state and the various calendars he used in the chapter.
Ibn al-Raheb divides the history of the Islamic state – since the era of the Prophet (PBUH) to his era, specifically the year (657 AH), into five chapters, as follows:
- Chapter One: The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (57)
In this chapter, Ibn al-Rahib writes the biography of the lives of the four adult caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar bin al-Khattab, Othman and Ali bin Abi Talib. Before that, he presents very briefly, not exceeding a few lines, the life of the Messenger (PBUH), mentioning his name, lineage, birth, date of migration, date of his death and his way of living. He also mentions how long he lived in al-Madina. Then, he continues to recite the biography of each of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, focusing on the most important events and work that characterized each successor, and finally, he presents the life of Al-Hassan Bin Ali (peace be upon him), considering him as one of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, citing the event of reconciliation with Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan in Kufa as well as focusing on the incident of the martyrdom of Imam Al-Hussein and his companions.
- Chapter Two: On the Caliphs of Bani Umayyah (58)
Ibn al-Raheb translates the Umayyad caliphs starting from Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan (41 – 60 AH / 661-679) until he reaches the caliphate of Marwan bin Muhammad (127 – 132 AH / 744 – 749 AD), meaning the end of the Umayyad state.
- Chapter Two: On the Caliphs of Bani Umayyah (58)
Ibn al-Raheb writes the biography of the Umayyad caliphs from the time of Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan (41-60 AH / 661-679) until the caliphate of Marawan bin Muhammad (127-132 AH / 744-749 AD), i.e the end of the Umayyad state.
- Chapter Three: The Abbasid Caliphs (59)
In this chapter, Ibn al-Rahib lists the names of Abbasid Caliphs and the period of their ruling. He briefly mentioned their news since the ruling of Abi Al-Abbas Al-Saffah (132 – 136 AH / 749 – 753 AD), the first caliph of Bani Al Abbas, until the succession of Al-Mustasem Billah in the year (656 AH / 1258 CE).
- Chapter Four: The Fatimid Caliphs who reigned in Morocco and Egypt (60)
In this chapter, the historian writes about the Fatimid caliphs, their names, the duration of their rule and some of their news since the beginning of the call for the Fatimid caliphate by Abu Muhammad Ubayd Allah in Siegelmasa, Morocco. Then he lists the names of the Fatimid caliphs who assumed power after him and all the way to the entry of the Fatimids into Egypt led by Jawhar al-Skali. Later, he begins to review the biographies of the Fatimid caliphs who assumed the caliphate in Egypt until the succession of al-ʿĀḍid li-Dīn Allāh Abdullah bin Yusuf ibn al-Hafiz, the last caliphs of the Fatimid state (555 – 567 AH / 1160-1171 AD).
- Chapter Five: The Ayyubid Kings (61)
In this chapter, Ibn al-Raheb presents the ruling periods of the kings of Ayyubids and their news, from the time of the reign of Nasser Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (567-589 AH / 1171-1193 AD) until the reign of the Great King Turan Shah (647 – 648 AH / 1249-1250 AD), the last king of the Ayyubid dynasty. Then the historian writes about two of the sultans of the Mamluk seas: Sultan Al-Moez Izz al-Din Abik (648 – 655 AH / 1250 – 1257 AD) and Mansur Ali Ibn Abik (655 – 657 AH / 1257 – 1259 AD), considering them to be the kings of the Ayyubid dynasty.
- Chapter Six: The history of the patriarchs
Ibn al-Raheb concludes with a special chapter on the history of the patriarchs of Alexandria from the time of Mark the Evangelist to the Patriarch Athanasius bin Calil (648 – 660 AH / 1250 – 1261 AD) (62). In this chapter, he talked about the duration of each patriarch’s tenure and the time of his death, focusing on the months and years in which these patriarchs took over, and it is likely that Ibn al-Raheb was proactive in this matter. He also summarized the most famous accidents and news in the days of each patriarch.
There is an appendix to this chapter – the unknown author – from Patriarch Athanasius bin Calil (648 – 660 AH / 1250 – 1261 AD) to Demetrius XI on two pages (63), in which the historian (64) did not follow the system of tables, but merely mentioned names of the patriarchs and a brief summary of news and accidents, mentioning the date of the Patriarchate seat, the date of death, and the years of the martyrs until the patriarch 97 who mentioned the date of his elevation only, and did not mention anything about the four patriarchs who came after him. He, then, continued to mention dates from Patriarch 102 to Patriarch 111.
Thus, Ibn al-Raheb has set general history, in which he tackled various historical incidents and issues starting from Adam and the judges of the Children of Israel, then the kings of Greece and the Romans, then to the Muslim caliphs, and finally the patriarchs of Alexandria until his time. All are listed in the form of brief tables and lists based on familiarity with the authority in calculating dates, indicating the extent the writer’s knowledge as astronomer, skillful and mathematical historian who makes his history a scientific subject worthy of study, research and analysis.
- General features of the historical approach of Ibn al-Raheb
As for Ibn al-Raheb’s method of presenting his historical material, we have previously discussed the writing of Ibn al-Raheb for his general or global history in the form of a historical table, mentioning in the first column of the table the name of the character who he wrote his biography, origin, lineage, birth and attributes, in the second column the number of years of his rule, in the third, the total of the foregoing years, and he added in the Muslims ’news a fourth field for the Hijri and Gregorian years.
Ibn al-Raheb is probably the first Christian historian after Islam to write his history in the form of chronological tables, and his full history has been presented after its first publication in the second half of the thirteenth century AD. In fact, we have some historical studies that prove that this historical blogging model is one of the ancient means practiced by man.
Some researchers even refer to the beginning of the codification of various life affairs, including the codification of past events since they appeared in the first human civilizations – the two civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley as a means of codification, i.e. writing more than five thousand years ago when the residents of Mesopotamia invented what the researchers called ” Cuneiform script “The people of the Nile Valley invented” the hieroglyphic script “where writing was organized in the civilization of the Mesopotamia Valley with tables and tables with the names of kings and ruling dynasties and the number of years of their rule, leaving us important examples of this type of historical blog, which represents one of the most important historical sources on the ancient history of Iraq. In addition to the importance of this medium as one of the oldest historical blogging models in this field (65).
Assyrian historians and writers have developed a method of codifying the tables of dynasties and kings into an important type of historical notation that modern scholars call it (synchronistic history) and its meaning (the History based on timetables). An important model has come to us, which is a summary of the political relations between the kings of Babylon and Assyria. They divided the tables into two opposite parts: one of them mentioned the Babylonian kings, who numbered 98, and in the second part, the 82 Assyrian kings who lived with them, starting from their earliest kings named “Erashem” to the rule of the last of the Assyrian kings, which is “Ashur Banipal” (seventh century BC) (66).
Christian historians have had knowledge of this type of historical notation. Eusebius of Caesarea (d. 340 AD) may have been the first to use this form of historical notation, as we find in the book “The Remaining Footsteps” of al-Biruni (362 – 440 AH / 973-1048 AD) an explicit quotation of Eastern Christian tables and calendars from Eusebius’ history (67). Al-Biruni says: “And the companions of Jesus (peace be upon him) needed to provide knowledge of the Passover of the Jews in order to derive from it the first fasting, so they took the opinion of the Jews about it, and because of the enmity between them and the Christians, they were telling them other than the truth to mislead them. However, there was no agreement in their calendars. However, there was agreement on the use of the method of the timetables which they call the Kharaniqians (68), claim in that Eusebius was a bishop of Caesarea with three hundred and eighteen bishops. ”69 Al-Biruni also provided a table for the kings of Constantinople that he quoted from Wakee ‘al-Qadi (d. 306 AH / 918 CE), who in turn quoted it from a book by the King of Rome (70). He did not mention the name of this king , and he did not mention the name of the book.
As for Muslim historians, they have known forms of lists and chronological tables from an early age also, as we find Sharhabeel bin Saad (d. 123/470 AD) lists of the names of the companions who participated in major events such as the Badrians. Then Al-Waqidi came after him (130 – 207 AH / 748-823 AD) to prepare more complete lists of Muslims in the conquests (71).
There are books and historical messages, such as “A Message in the History of the Syrians’ Kings ” by Sinan bin Thabit (d. 331/942 AD) (72) and the book “History of the Senior Past Nations and Others” by Hamza al-Isfahani (d. 360 AH / 970 CE). Al-Biruni benefited from it in writing his chronology (73). Then there was an evolution in the use of calendars and tables as a form of chronological presentation where the historians and astronomers always use these methods, as we find in the book “The Remaining Tracks” of al-Biruni (74).Thus, Ibn al-Raheb was not the first to use this form in writing his historical records, but it remains to him that he is the first historian to write general or global records until his time in the form of chronological tables.
It is noted in the history of Ibn al-Raheb that he relied on many and varied sources, sometimes without referring to them. We do not know the reason for that, except that it is due to the approach adopted by Ibn al-Raheb in recording history. It is an approach that relies on Shortcut and Focus, in addition to adopting the approach of historical lists that rely on timelines, which do not allow the historian to elaborate on the events or get into details, in addition to mentioning the sources, narrations and documents.
According to Adel Cedaros’ opinion, what distinguishes Ibn al-Raheb is that he is encyclopedic, arranging information in an orderly way, through the diversity of his sources (75), and we can discern the most important sources that he relied on through his historical recording as follows:
- Ibn al-Raheb relied on the Bible in the information of the history of creation and the story of Adam, the judges of the Children of Israel and their prophets; sometimes he draws his information directly from the Bible and provides a text of paragraphs extracted from the Bible in order to support his historical accounts (76).
- Ibn al-Raheb used in his history Jewish sources and writings, especially in writing the ancient Jewish history, and the most important of these sources is the history of the Jews of Abu al-Fakhr al-Muntasir (77), and the historical writings of the Jewish historian Josephus (or Yusef Ibn Krayon) (78).
- Although he did not state this, Ibn Al-Raheb relied on Christian historians regarding Roman and Church history. Some of historians are Saeed bin Batriq (79), who is quoted very briefly, for example in the biograpy of King Qudumus Caesar bin Antonius (180 – 192 AD), and the most important events that occurred in his era, he says: “He reigned for a period of twelve years, and during his reign the Kingdom of Persia arose, and Galen the Wise was working with medicine” (80). Whereas, we find that ” Batriq ” deals with these events in more details, then he remembers the period of the rule of this king, and he doesn’t say simply that Galen the Wise was in his era, but he cites from the book of Galen himself that the latter was the one who raised King Godumus, then he mentions the names of the patriarchs and the bishops who followed in Antioch, Rome and Jerusalem during the reign of this king. He refers to the duration of each of them assuming the Patriarch See, then concludes his speech on the life of this king by mentioning the emergence of the Kingdom of Persia led by Ardashir bin Babak (226-240 AD), and the letters that Ardeshir sent to the kings and princes of the neighboring countries in which he vows to kill and punish them if they don’t cooperate with him (81).
- As for the Islamic history, it appears that he relied on Muslim historians, especially al-Tabari (82), but Ibn al-Raheb did not refer to these sources, nor did he mention the names of their authors.
- With regard to the history of the patriarchs of Alexandria, Ibn Al-Raheb relied on the “Biography of the Holy Communion” or “The History of the Patriarchal Fathers” by Sawiris Ibn Al-Muqafa and those who came after him from the historians of the biographies of the patriarchs (83).
- Ibn al-Raheb used the astronomical sources, engineering books, arithmetic and astrology, in calculating the different dates and calendars, and one of the most important astronomical sources on which he relied and mentioned in his history is the book “Almagest” by Ptolemy (84).
And after we dealt with the many and varied sources of Ibn al-Raheb without referring to them himself, and we explained that that he refers to the method he followed in writing his history, which is the method of shortening and focusing, but in the few cases we find him keen to mention his sources, as follows:
- He used to mention the name of the source’s owner, but he didn’t mention the name of the source, for example, he mentioned the number of those who were killed by the Romans in their wars with the Jews, and those who were killed by the Kharijites (85) throughout their wars in the city of Jerusalem. Ibn al-Rahib said: “Yusuf bin Carbon stated that he counted the killing of the Romans in the war and spoke of the small number of Kharijites during the period of their conquest in the city, and they were a thousand and one hundred people.” (86) without mentioning the name of the source.
- Sometimes, Ibn al-Raheb mentions the source from which he derived his information, but he missed to mention the name of the source’s owner, for example: 3- what he mentioned regarding the biography of David, King Bin Yassa, the last king of the children of Israel, where he mentioned that the king had ruled Israel for forty years, Hebron for seven years and Jerusalem thirty-three years, referring that his information was mentioned in “The Book of Kings” (87) without specifying the name of the author of this book (88).
- At other times, he mentioned the full data of the source from which he quoted, for example “the book ((History of the Jews)) by Abi Al-Fakhr Al-Muntasir” (89).
Ibn al-Raheb did not rely on explanation and commentary on events in all of the historical narratives mentioned. Perhaps his approach, based on shortcuts, focus, and historical tables, justifies his lack of focus on explanations and comments and expressing opinion in historical narratives. But sometimes he tends to explain and comment on these events, in order to prove that he has a good ability to be a historian interacting with historical events. These explanations are sometimes historical explanations to demonstrate the extent of his knowledge of various calendars, calculating dates in addition to his knowledge of astronomy, the following are examples of this:
- His conclusion in proving the period Hercules spent in ruling thirty-one years and five months, based on historical evidence, where he stated that Hercules was a king eleven years before the advent of Islam, when he took over the year 922 for Alexander (90), then his continued for another twenty years after the emergence of Islam, where he died on the ninth Sunday of February, corresponding to the fifteenth of Amshir in the year 954 of Alexander (91).
Sometimes these explanations were religious based on the historian’s philosophy and belief, as one of the Christian clergyman. He mentioned examples including his explanation and description of the events that befell the rulers of Muslims, diseases and disasters. These events occurred as a result of compelling and persecuting Christianity and its figures. In his opinion, it is evidence of the Lord’s help (the Exalted, the Majestic) to the Christians, his contentment with them and his ability to rid them from the hand of the enemies. He explained the death of Ahmad ibn Tulun that God (Exalted and Majestic) with his ability had saved the Patriarch “Khayel” (267 – 295 AH / 880 – 907 AD) from this tyrant ruler who confiscated the property of this patriarch, sold the endowments of churches in the city of Alexandria, and some of the outstanding church to the Jews, and decided Diyariya (92) for every Christian carat (93) in the year (94).
It is clear from this narration that Ibn al-Raheb was very prejudiced against Ahmed bin Tulun. As most historical sources, Islamic and Christian, confirm that the people of dhimma in Egypt lived in peace and stability in the era of the Tulunid state under Ahmad Ibn Tulun; their conditions improved and they practiced their religious rituals with complete freedom.Ahmed bin Tulun was always defending their rights and bringing his entourage to justice when they violated the rights of christians (95). Ahmed bin Tulun employed Christian ministers and clercks.Two Christian clercks: John and Abraham, the sons of Moses (96). Ahmed Ibn Tulun frequently visited the monks of the Monastery of Qusayr, who said about him: visited the monks of Deir al-Qusayr, as : ((Prince Ahmad Ibn Tulun often visited us and met a monk from us)) (97).
As for his mental and logical explanations, it is very rare in his history; perhaps, this is due to the nature of his personality and philosophy, which is based on the Christian interpretation of history that depends on the theory of the existence of a force that began history, and that the history maker directs history to the desired goal, toward the elevation of man spiritually and intellectually.
Christianity believes that the force that started making history and directed it today toward its goal is God (the Exalted, the Majestic) through the direct relationship with human beings and historical events, then through the books and among the most expressive of this thought in Christian theology in the modern era. John Calvin built his theological theory as a whole on the idea of God’s supremacy and his directing of history (98); God dominates history. He lived among his people in various appearances and then embodied in the New Testament, and the idea of incarnation of God in Christianity is an idea God’s material entry into history (99).
Based on this thought, Christians interpret the events of history as follows:
The failure of the Crusades was due to the fact that it was against God’s thought, and the success of the ecclesiastical reform was due to the fact that it was in line with God’s direction of history. This is the case for the rest of historical events. God in history directs not only individuals, but societies, ages, and peoples (100).
This theory and historical interpretation won’t be the result of the modern era, and Calvin was not the first to interpret history according to this theory. Rather, it was preceded by many ancient Christian historians and theologians, including our historian Ibn al-Raheb, through his many fatalistic and religious explanations that we find Ibn al-Raheb.
Despite the criticism directed at some of Ibn Al-Raheb’s accounts, and despite the fact that the book is short tables and very brief and focused news, the history of Ibn Al-Raheb remains important among the sources of Islamic history, and this importance is summarized in the following aspects:
- The book showed the extent of Ibn Al-Raheb’s ability, his skill, and his wide knowledge in the sequence of events of the ancient and modern world (from Adam until his time).
- The importance of Ibn al-Raheb’s history is evident in the comparisons he made between the different dates, where he demonstrated great craftsmanship and accuracy in stating the different dates for each news or incident from the history he mentioned and comparing them to other dates.
- The history of Ibn al-Raheb preserved important news for us regarding the translations of the Muslim caliphs, as well as his special interest in the history of each successor’s term and duration of his term, and the most important events that occurred in the Islamic state during his tenure.
- The importance of Ibn al-Raheb’s history appears in clarifying the social, religious and political conditions of the people of dhimma under Islamic rule and the policy of the Muslim caliphs towards them, and the extent of their religious freedom and social equality enjoyed by them under the Islamic state.
- 1: Abd al-Azim (Howayda), The Jews in Islamic Egypt until the end of the Ayyubid era, first edition, Cairo: Arab Renaissance House, 1992.
- 2: Al-Karmali (Anastas), Arab and Islamic Numismatics and Numismatics, First Edition, Cairo: Library of Religious Culture, no history.
- 3: Subhi (Ahmed Mahmoud), in Philosophy of History, first edition, Beirut: Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, 1994.
- 4: kabur (Abu Al-Barakat), The Lamp of Darkness in Clarifying the Service, First Edition, Cairo: Dar Al-Karouz, 1964.
- 5: Al-Biruni (Abu Rayhan Muhammad bin Ahmed), The Remaining Archeology of the Old Centuries, First Edition, Beirut, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyya.
- 6: Al-Douri (Abd al-Aziz), a study on the emergence of the science of history among the Arabs, first edition, Beirut, The Catholic Library, 1960 AD.
- 7: Al-Qifti (Jamal al-Din Ibn Yusuf, 646 AH / 1248 CE), Scholars’s News in Akhbar al-Hakim, Cairo: Al-Mutanabi Library, no history.
- 8: Small (Beryl), historians of the Middle Ages, translated by Qasim Abdo, first edition, Cairo, Dar Al Aref, 1978.
- 9: Ibn Battariq (Saeed) (328 AH / 94 CE), The Collected History of Investigation and Ratification, 1st Edition, Beirut: The Jesuit Fathers, 1905.
- 10: Sawiris (Ibn Al-Muqaffa d. 377 AH / 987 AD), History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church, Edition 1: Cairo: The Qutbat Archeology Association, 1943.
- 11: Ibn al-Nadim (Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn al-Nadim al-Warraq al-Baghdadi), 385 AH / 995 CE, al-Fihrist, first edition, Beirut: Dar al-Marifa, 1978.
- 12: Brockelmann (Karl), A History of Arab Literature, translated by Abdel Halim Al-Najjar, First Edition, Cairo: Dar Al Ma’arif, 1991.
- 13: Mustafa (Shaker), Arab History and Historians, Second Edition, Beirut, Dar Al-Alam Al-Malayn, 1987.
- 14: Baqir (Taha), an introduction to the history of ancient civilizations, second edition, Baghdad: Dar Al-Alameya Al-Aliyah, 1955 AD.
- 15: Sheikho (Louis), The Book of Arabic Manuscripts for the Christian Library, First Edition, Beirut, The Jesuit Fathers, 1924.
- 16: Nakhleh (Kamil Saleh), History and Tables of the Coptic Patriarchs of Alexandria, and a Table that Collects the Sayings of the Advances, 1st Edition, Cairo: Dar Al-Mahaba, 1943, pp. 48-53.
- 17: Solomon (Selim), A Brief History of the Coptic Nation, First Edition, Cairo, The Egyptian Press, 1914, 1/26.
- 18: Coptic Encyclopedia, 1/34.
- 19: Yousab (Bishop of Fouh), History of the Patriarchs, First Edition, Cairo, 1942.
- 20: Butler (Alfred), The Ancient Coptic Churches in Egypt, 1st Edition, Cairo: General Book Authority, 2001 AD.
- 21: Nakhleh (Kamil Saleh), History and Schedules of the Coptic Patriarchs of Alexandria, and a Table Collectively Among the Sayings of the Advanced, First Edition, Cairo: Dar Al-Mahaba, 1943.
- 23: The Franciscan (Father Wadih), Introduction to Christian Arab Literature for the Copts, Journal of Christian Religious Studies, Cairo, 1992, Volume Two, p. 31.
- 24: Zidan (Gerji), History of the Literature of the Arabic Language, First Edition, Cairo, Dar Al-Hilal, 1924.
- 25: Ibn al-Raheb, the proof, which is a manuscript number (72 date) in the Patriarchate House in Cairo.
- 26: In my translation of this historian, I used many sources and references, among the most important: the books of Father Louis Sheikho on the authority of Ibn al-Raheb and his books, Abu al-Barakat Ibn Kabab, and his book ((Lamp of Darkness in Explanation of Service)).
- 27: Ibn Al-Assal (Al-Mutamin Ibrahim Ibn Al-Assal), Majmoo ‘Fundamentals of Religion, no edition, Cairo.
- 28: It is a manuscript prepared by the monk Gabriel, who came from Damascus to Cairo: Refer to: Abd al-Mawla, the efforts of Christian historians in Islamic Egypt.
- 29: Kahlah (Reda), The Authors’ Dictionary, Translations of Arab Book Compilers, First Edition, Beirut: House of Revival of Arab Heritage, no history.
- 30: Abd al-Masih (Yesti), Introduction to the Coptic Language, Marmina Ajayibi Association Magazine, Issue September, Part One, Alexandria, 1969.
- This century is not limited to these historians. Some other historians have appeared in the seventh century AH (thirteenth century AD), such as Anba Yossab, Bishop of Fouh (d. AD 660-670 AH / 1261 – 1271 CE), author of the Book of the Prisoner of the Patriarchs) and Anba Abram Or (Ephrem), which has a civil history that reaches the year 613 AH / 1216 CE.
- I have used many of the most important sources and references in writing the biography of this historian: The writings of Father Louis Sheikho on Ibn al-Raheb, and the book of Abu al-Barakat bin Kabab ((Misbah al-Dulma Fi Idah al-Khidma)).
- A manuscript under No. (72) in the Patriarchate House in Cairo.
- It is an introduction to the Coptic language, published by Malone in the Mesopotamian Journal
- Ibn Al-Assal (Al-Moatman Ibrahim Bin Al-Assal), The book set of Fundamentals of Religion, No Edition, Cairo, p. 115.
- Ibn Al-Assal, ., p. 116
- It is a manuscript prepared by Friar Gabriel, who came from Damascus to Cairo: See: Abd al-Mawla, The Efforts of Christian Historians in Islamic Egypt, p. 270.
- Kahalah (Rida), A Dictionary of Authors, Translations of Arab Book Classifiers, First Edition, Beirut: Dar Al-Ahyaa al-Arabiyya, No History, 3/146.
- Brockelman (Carl), History of the Arab Father, translated by Abdel Halim El-Naggar, First Edition, Cairo: Dar Al-Maaref, 1991, 6/146.
- Cheikho (Louis), The Arabic Manuscripts Book of the Christian Library, First Edition, Beirut, Jesuit Fathers, 1924, pp. 7-9.
- Shehu, ., pp. 7-9.
- Nakhleh (Kamel Saleh), History and Tables of the Coptic Patriarchs of Alexandria, and a Compendium Table Among the Sayings of the Applicants, 1st Floor, Cairo: Dar of Love, 1943, pp. 48-53.
- Solomon (Selim), A Brief History of the Coptic Nation, First Edition, Cairo, Egyptian Press, 1914, 1/26.
- Coptic Encyclopedia, 1/34.
- Usab (Bishop of Fouh), History of the Patriarchal Fathers, First Edition, Cairo, 1942, p. 180.
- Where the sources did not mention to us that he has children.
- It is an abbreviation for the name (Sanaa al-Dawla), Usab, History of the Patriarchal Fathers, p. 181; see: Margin No. 3 from the book Graf: op.cit.p.429.
- Usab, ., p. 165.
- Graf: Loc cit Graf: Geschichte dwe chritichen Arabischen. Iterature, text 2.P. 432
- We do not know the exact birth or death of him, but it seems that he was born in the late twelfth century AD, where he worked in the Diwan of the Royal Armies Abdul Malik al-Adil (596 – 615 AH), and was appointed as a priest in the church ((Abu Sarjah)), immediately after the death of Patriarch Ioannis VI to choose the priest Cyril Ben Laqlaq, opposing the election by lot. See: Usab, History of the Patriarchal Fathers, p. 165.
- The deacon: a priestly degree that holds certain duties, the most important of which is reading the chapters of the Bible and serving the altar. Butler (Alfred), The Ancient Coptic Churches in Egypt, i 1, Cairo: General Book Authority, 2001 CE, p / 307.
- Nakhleh (Kamel Saleh), History and Tables of the Coptic Patriarchs of Alexandria and a Compendium Table Among the Sayings of the Applicants, First Edition, Cairo: Dar of Love, 1943, p. 51.
- Nakhleh (Kamel Saleh), History Book and Tables of the Patriarchs, p. 51.
- The Franciscan (Father Wadih), Introduction to Arab Christian Literature for Copts, Journal of Islamic Christian Studies, Cairo, 1992, Volume II, p. 31.
- Cheikho (Louis), The Arabic Manuscripts of the Christian Library, pp. 7-8.
- Zidan (Jerji), History of Literature in the Arabic Language, First Edition, Cairo, Dar Al-Hilal, 1924, 3/152.
- Zidan (Jerji), ., 6/146.
- It is the oldest churches of the Palace of Candles in Fustat. For more information on this church and its history: see: Butler, The Ancient Coptic Churches in Egypt, p. 51.
- For more information on this book, see what Usab wrote, History of the Patriarchal Fathers, pp. 162-163.
- Perhaps he intended by positive attributes (qualities of proof), and negative (qualities of negation).
- Ibn al-Raheb, Al-Burhan, is a manuscript under No. (72) in the Patriarchate House in Cairo.
- Graf: Geschichte der christichen Arabischen literature, text 2. P. 432.
- The Eugomanes Gerges edition (from Beni Suef chair), Cairo.
- See: Graf: op. cit., p. 430.
- Cheikho (Louis), The Arabic Manuscripts of the Christian Library, pp. 7-8.
- It is written under No. (72) in the Patriarchate of Cairo.
- Usab, History of the Patriarchal Fathers, p. 179.
- Graf: op. cit., p. 432.
- Usab, ., p. 181.
- (Abu al-Barakat), the lamp of darkness in clarifying the service, the first edition, Cairo: Dar al-Karouz, 1964, 1/321.
- The Franciscan (Wadih), Introduction to Arab Christian Literature, p. 31.
- Ibn al-Rahib, History of Ibn al-Rahib, p. 101.
- The son of the monk, ., p. 43.
- Not only that, but he also wrote a book explaining its vocabulary and rules towards it, as well as starting to develop a dictionary for it.
- Abdel-Messih (Yasti), An Introduction to the Coptic Language, Maramina Al-Ajaybi Association Journal, Issue September, Part One, Alexandria, 1969, pp. 11-13.
- – Graf: Geschichte der christichen Arabischen literatrure, test 2, p. 435.
- Usab, History of the Patriarchal Fathers, p. 109.
- Brockelman (Carl), History of the Arab Father, translated by Abdel Halim El-Naggar, First Edition, Cairo: Dar Al-Maarif, 1991, 6/146.
- Mustafa (Shaker), Arab History and Historians, Second Edition, Beirut, Dar al-Alam for Millions, 1987, 3/205.
- As this introduction does not exceed one page from the history of Ibn al-Raheb.
- Ibn al-Rahib, History of Ibn al-Rahib, p. 1.
- This chapter takes about 8 pages from the history of Ibn al-Raheb (pp. 1-8).
- We will talk about this issue and its relationship to the history of Ibn al-Rahib when studying the sources of Ibn al-Rahib.
- This chapter starts from pp. 40 to p. 50 from the history of Ibn al-Raheb.
- Ibn al-Raheb, History of Ibn al-Raheb, pp. 41-42.
- Ibn al-Rahib, History of Ibn al-Rahib, p. 50; as this introduction does not take more than half a page of the history of Ibn al-Rahib.
- Ibn al-Raheb, ., pp. 51-53.
- Ibn al-Raheb, ., pp. 54-59.
- Ibn al-Raheb, ., pp. 60–77.
- Ibn al-Raheb, ., 78–90.
- Ibn al-Raheb, ., pp. 90–100.
- This chapter is the largest chapter in the history of Ibn al-Raheb, occupying approximately one third of its history from pp. 101-142
- Ibn al-Raheb, ., pp. 143–144.
- We do not know the historian who wrote this footnote, perhaps it was from the copyist who wrote the book where at the end of these two pages the phrase [here ends the footnote of the copyist].
- Baqer (Taha), an introduction to the history of ancient civilizations, second edition, Baghdad: Dar Al-Alamia Al-Alia, 1955 AD, p. 104
- Baqer (Taha), ., p. 24.
- (Al-Biruni) Abi Rayhan Muhammad bin Ahmad), The Remaining Archeology of Al-Khaliya, First Edition, Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub Al-Alami, p. 85.
- These are historical tables that Christians used to calculate their dates and holidays. See: Al-Biruni, ., p. 304.
- Al-Biruni, ., p. 305.
- Al-Biruni, ., p. 97.
- Al-Douri (Abdel Aziz), Research in the emergence of the history science of the Arabs, p. 22.
- Al-Qafti (Jamal al-Din bin Yusuf, 646 AH / 1248 CE), Scholars’ News on the News of the Wise, No Edition, Cairo: Al-Mutanabbi Library, No History, p. 133.
- Al-Biruni, ., p. 105.
- Al-Biruni, ., pp. 72-143.
- League, ., p. 142.
- Ibn al-Raheb, ., pp. 6, 9, 24, 28, 29, 101.
- Abu al-Fakhr was of Jewish origin, then converted to Christianity, so he was called the victor, and from him Ibn al-Raheb quoted the old section that extends from Adam to Moses (peace be upon him) according to the Jewish eras. He lived before the end of the thirteenth century AD, Smali (Pyrril), Medieval historians, p. 44.
- He was known to Western scholars as Flavius Josephus, born in 37 or 38 BC, and was called Joseph Ibn Mitas. His most important work is The History of the Ancient Jews and the Book of the Jewish Wars, Smali (Beryl), M. S., p. 48.
- Ibn Batriq (Saeed) (328 AH / 94 CE), The Collected History based on Investigation and Verification, 1st edition, Beirut: The Jesuit Fathers, 1905.
- Ibn al-Raheb, MS, p. 43.
- Ibn Batriq, 1/105 – 107.
- Mustafa (Shakir), Arab History and Historians, 3/215.
- Sawiris (Ibn Al-Maqfa’a, c. 377 AH / 987 CE), History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church, 1st edition: Cairo: Coptic Monuments Association, 1943, 1/56 – 75.
- He is a Greek astronomer who lived in the second century A.D., he was educated in Athens and Alexandria and his main author was known to the Arabs as ((Almagest)). Ibn al-Nadim (Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn al-Nadim al-Warraq al-Baghdadi, 385 AH / 995 CE, al-Fihrist, first edition, Beirut: Dar al-Maarefa, 1978, p. 367; Al-Qafti, Akhbar ul-Ulama, the Wise, p. 69.
- They are the group of Jews who left the city to fight the Romans during the siege. See: Ibn al-Rahib, History of Ibn al-Rahib, pp. 41-42.
- Ibn al-Raheb, p. 42.
- 87- Ibn al-Raheb, p. 14.
- Some scholars believe that the author of these books is Jeremiah the Prophet, while others believe that the writer is Ezra the priest. See: Abd al-Azim (Howaida), The Jews in Islamic Egypt until the End of the Ayyubid Era, First Edition, Cairo: The Arab Renaissance House, 1992, p. 164.
- Ibn al-Raheb, p. 9.
- Ibn al-Raheb, M. S., p. 50.
- Ibn al-Raheb, M. S., p. 50.
- It is a type of tax that the Governor of Egypt Abdel Aziz bin Marwan (66-85 AH) had to impose on monasteries or monks. See: Abd al-Azim (Howaida), M. S., p. 132.
- Carats, its weight varies by country. In Mecca, a quarter of a sixth of a dinar, and Iraq, half ten. See: Al-Karmali (Father Anstas), Arab and Islamic Money and Numismatics, First Edition, Cairo: Library of Religious Culture, No History., P. 33.
- Ibn al-Raheb, p. 132.
- Al-Balawi, biography of Ahmad ibn Tulun, pp. 206-207.
- Al-Balawi p. 109.
- Al-Balawi, p. 118.
- Lami, “Who Governed History”, p. 14.
- Lami, pp. 14–15.
- Subhi (Ahmad Mahmoud), in the philosophy of history, first edition, Beirut: Arab Renaissance House, 1994, p. 166.
– Directorate General of Education in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf.